0-1 Chapter 20 - blood vessels and circulation Flashcards Preview

2 - Keiser A&P 2 > 0-1 Chapter 20 - blood vessels and circulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 0-1 Chapter 20 - blood vessels and circulation Deck (196):
1

arteries

carry blood away from heart

2

veins

carry blood back to heart

3

capillaries

connect smallest arteries to veins

4

tunica interna

(tunica intima)
–lines the blood vessel and is exposed to blood
–endothelium –simple squamous epithelium overlying a basement membrane and a sparse layer of loose connective tissue

5

tunica interna

functions

•acts as a selectively permeable barrier
•secrete chemicals that stimulate dilation or constriction of the vessel
•normally repels blood cells and platelets that may adhere to it and form a clot
•when tissue around vessel is inflamed, the endothelial cells produce cell-adhesion molecules that induce leukocytes to adhere to the surface
–causes leukocytes to congregate in tissues where their defensive actions are needed

6

tunica media

–middle layer
–consists of smooth muscle, collagen, and elastic tissue
–strengthens vessel and prevents blood pressure from rupturing them

7

vasomotion

changes in diameter of the blood vessel brought about by smooth muscle

8

tunica externa

(tunica adventitia)
–outermost layer
–consists of loose connective tissue that often merges with that of neighboring blood vessels, nerves, or other organs
–anchors the vessel and provides passage for small nerves, lymphatic vessels

9

vasa vasorum

small vessels that supply blood to at least the outer half of the larger vessels
•blood from the lumen is thought to nourish the inner half of the vessel by diffusion

10

arteries

are sometimes called resistance vessels because they have relatively strong, resilient tissue structure that resists high blood pressure

11

conducting (elastic or large) arteries

•biggest arteries
•aorta, common carotid, subclavian, pulmonary trunk, and common iliac arteries
•have a layer of elastic tissue, internal elastic lamina, at the border between interna and media
•external elastic lamina at the border between media and externa
•expand during systole, recoil during diastole which lessens fluctuations in blood pressure

12

distributing (muscular or medium) arteries

•distributes blood to specific organs
•brachial, femoral, renal, and splenic arteries
•smooth muscle layers constitute three-fourths of wall thickness

13

aneurysm

weak point in an artery or the heart wall
–forms a thin-walled, bulging sac that pulsates with each heartbeat and may rupture at any time

14

dissecting aneurysm

blood accumulates between the tunics of the artery and separates them, usually because of degeneration of the tunica media

15

most common sites

abdominal aorta, renal arteries, and arterial circle at the base of the brain

16

results from

congenital weakness of the blood vessels or result of trauma or bacterial infections such as syphilis
•most common cause is atherosclerosis and hypertension

17

resistance (small) arteries

–arterioles –smallest arteries
•control amount of blood to various organs
–thicker tunica media in proportion to their lumen than large arteries and very little tunica externa

18

metarterioles

–short vessels that link arterioles to capillaries
–muscle cells form a precapillary sphincter about entrance to capillary
•constriction of these sphincters reduces or shuts off blood flow through their respective capillaries
•diverts blood to other tissues

19

Arterial Sense Organs

sensory structures in the walls of certain vessels that monitor blood pressure and chemistry
–transmit information to brainstem that serves to regulate heart rate, vasomotion, and respiration

20

carotid sinuses

baroreceptors (pressure sensors)
•in walls of internal carotid artery
•monitors blood pressure –signaling brainstem
–decreased heart rate and vessels dilation in response to high blood pressure

21

carotid bodies

chemoreceptors
•oval bodies near branch of common carotids
•monitor blood chemistry
•mainly transmit signals to the brainstem respiratory centers
•adjust respiratory rate to stabilize pH, CO2, and O2

22

aortic bodies

chemoreceptors
•one to three in walls of aortic arch
•same function as carotid bodies

23

capillaries

site where nutrients, wastes, and hormones pass between the blood and tissue fluid through the walls of the vessels (exchange vessels)
–the ‘business end’ of the cardiovascular system
–composed of endothelium and basal lamina
–absent or scarce in tendons, ligaments, epithelia, cornea and lens of the eye

24

three capillary types distinguished by

ease with which substances pass through their walls and by structural differences that account for their greater or lesser permeability

25

continuous capillaries

occur in most tissues
–endothelial cells have tight junctions forming a continuous tube with intercellular clefts
•allow passage of solutes such as glucose
–pericytes wrap around the capillaries and contain the same contractile protein as muscle
•contract and regulate blood flow

26

fenestrated capillaries

kidneys, small intestine
–organs that require rapid absorption or filtration
–endothelial cells riddled with holes called filtration pores (fenestrations)
•spanned by very thin glycoprotein layer
•allows passage of only small molecules

27

sinusoids (discontinuous capillaries)

liver, bone marrow, spleen
–irregular blood-filled spaces with large fenestrations
–allow proteins (albumin), clotting factors, and new blood cells to enter the circulation

28

Capillary Beds

capillaries organized into networks called capillary beds
–usually supplied by a single metarteriole

29

thoroughfare channel

metarteriole that continues through capillary bed to venule

30

precapillary sphincters

control which beds are well perfused
•three-fourths of the body’s capillaries are shut down at a given time

31

when sphincters open

•capillaries are well perfused with blood and engage in exchanges with the tissue fluid

32

when sphincters closed

•blood bypasses the capillaries
•flows through thoroughfare channel to venule
(skeletal muscles at rest)

33

Veins (Capacitance Vessels)

greater capacity for blood containment than arteries
•thinner walls, flaccid, less muscular and elastic tissue
•collapse when empty, expand easily
•have steady blood flow
•merge to form larger veins
•subjected to relatively low blood pressure
–remains 10 mm Hg with little fluctuation

34

postcapillary venules

smallest veins
–even more porous than capillaries so also exchange fluid with surrounding tissues
–tunica interna with a few fibroblasts and no muscle fibers
–most leukocytes emigrate from the bloodstream through venule walls

35

muscular venules

up to 1 mm in diameter
–1 or 2 layers of smooth muscle in tunica media
–have a thin tunica externa

36

medium veins

up to 10 mm in diameter
–thin tunica media and thick tunica externa
–tunica interna forms venous valves
–varicose veins result in part from the failure of these valves
–skeletal muscle pump propels venous blood back toward the heart

37

venous sinuses

–veins with especially thin walls, large lumens, and no smooth muscle
–dural venous sinus and coronary sinus of the heart
–not capable of vasomotion

38

large veins –larger than 10 mm

–some smooth muscle in all three tunics
–thin tunica media with moderate amount of smooth muscle
–tunica externa is thickest layer
•contains longitudinal bundles of smooth muscle
–venae cavae, pulmonary veins, internal jugular veins, and renal veins

39

Varicose Veins

blood pools in the lower legs in people who stand for long periods stretching the veins
–cusps of the valves pull apart in enlarged superficial veins further weakening vessels
–blood backflows and further distends the vessels, their walls grow weak and develop into varicose veins

40

hemorrhoids

varicose veins of the anal canal

41

Circulatory Routes

general

simplest and most common route
–heart to arteries to arterioles to capillaries to venules to veins
–passes through only one network of capillaries from the time it leaves the heart until the time it returns

42

Circulatory Routes

portal system

–blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks before returning to heart
•between hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
•in kidneys
•between intestines to liver

43

anastomosis

the point where two blood vessels merge

44

arteriovenous anastomosis

(shunt)
–artery flows directly into vein bypassing capillaries

45

venous anastomosis

–most common
–one vein empties directly into another
–reason vein blockage less serious than an arterial blockage

46

arterial anastomosis

–two arteries merge
–provides collateral (alternative) routes of blood supply to a tissue
–coronary circulation and around joints

47

Principles of Blood Flow

blood supply to a tissue can be expressed in terms of flow and perfusion

47

at rest, total flow is

quite constant, and is equal to the cardiac output (5.25 L/min)
•important for delivery of nutrients and oxygen, and removal of metabolic wastes

48

hemodynamics

physical principles of blood flow based on pressure and resistance
•F is proportional to P/R, (F = flow, P = difference in pressure, R = resistance to flow)
•the greater the pressure difference between two points, the greater the flow; the greater the resistance the less the flow

49

blood pressure

(bp) –the force that blood exerts against a vessel wall

50

measured at

brachial artery of arm using sphygmomanometer

51

two pressures are recorded

systolic pressure
diastolic pressure

52

systolic pressure

peak arterial BP taken during ventricular contraction (ventricular systole)

53

diastolic pressure

minimum arterial BP taken during ventricular relaxation (diastole) between heart beats

54

normal value, young adult:

120/75 mm Hg

55

pulse pressure

difference between systolic and diastolic pressure
–important measure of stress exerted on small arteries by pressure surges generated by the heart

56

mean arterial pressure (MAP

the mean pressure one would obtain by taking measurements at several intervals throughout the cardiac cycle
–diastolic pressure + (1/3 of pulse pressure)
–average blood pressure that most influences risk level for edema, fainting (syncope), atherosclerosis, kidney failure, and aneurysm

57

hypertension

high blood pressure
–chronic is resting BP > 140/90
–consequences
•can weaken small arteries and cause aneurysms

58

hypotension

chronic low resting BP
–caused by blood loss, dehydration, anemia

59

Blood Pressure

one of the body’s chief mechanisms in preventing excessive blood pressure is the ability of the arteries to stretch and recoil during the cardiac cycle

60

importance of arterial elasticity

–expansion and recoil maintains steady flow of blood throughout cardiac cycle, smoothes out pressure fluctuations and decreases stress on small arteries
•BP rises with age
–arteries less distensible and absorb less systolic force

61

BP determined by

cardiac output, blood volume and peripheral resistance
–resistance hinges on blood viscosity, vessel length, and vessel radius

62

peripheral resistance

the opposition to flow that blood encounters in vessels away from the heart

63

resistance hinges on three variables

blood viscosity “thickness”
vessel length

64

blood viscosity “thickness”

•RBC count and albumin concentration elevate viscosity the most
•decreased viscosity with anemia and hypoproteinemia speed flow
•increased viscosity with polycythemia and dehydration slow flow

65

vessel length

the farther liquid travels through a tube, the more cumulative friction it encounters
•pressure and flow decline with distance

66

vessel radius

most powerful influence over flow
•only significant way of controlling peripheral resistance.

67

vasomotion

change in vessel radius
–vasoconstriction-by muscular effort that results in smooth muscle contraction
–vasodilation -by relaxation of the smooth muscle

68

laminar flow

flows in layers, faster in center

69

arterioles can constrict to

1/3 of fully relaxed radius
–an increase of three times in the radius of a vessel results in eighty one times the flow

70

from aorta to capillaries, blood velocity (speed) decreases:


–farther from heart, the number of vessels and their total cross-sectional area becomes greater and greater

71

from capillaries to vena cava, flow increases again


–large amount of blood forced into smaller channels
–never regains velocity of large arteries

72

arterioles

are most significant point of control over peripheral resistance and flow
–on proximal side of capillary beds and best positioned to regulate flow into the capillaries
–outnumber any other type of artery, providing the most numerous control points
–more muscular in proportion to their diameter
•highly capable of vasomotion

73

arterioles produce

half of the total peripheral resistance

74

Regulation of BP and Flow

vasomotion is a quick and powerful way of altering blood pressure and flow

75

three ways of controlling vasomotion:

–local control
–neural control
–hormonal control

76

Local Control of BP and Flow

4 ways

autoregulation
vasoactive chemicals
reactive hyperemia
angiogenesis

77

autoregulation

the ability of tissues to regulate their own blood supply
–metabolic theory of autoregulation –if tissue is inadequately perfused,wastes accumulate stimulating vasodilation which increases perfusion
–bloodstream delivers oxygen and remove metabolites
–when wastes are removed, vessels constrict

78

vasoactive chemicals

substances secreted by platelets, endothelial cells, and perivascular tissue stimulate vasomotion
–histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins stimulate vasodilation
–endothelial cells secrete prostacyclin and nitric oxide (vasodilators) and endothelins (vasoconstrictor)

79

reactive hyperemia

if blood supply cut off then restored, flow increases above normal

80

angiogenesis

growth of new blood vessels
–occurs in regrowth of uterine lining, around coronary artery obstructions, in exercised muscle, and malignant tumors
–controlled by growth factors

81

Neural Control of Blood Vessels

vessels under remote control by the central and autonomic nervous systems

82

vasomotor center of medulla oblongata exerts

sympathetic control over blood vessels throughout the body
–stimulates most vessels to constrict, but dilates vessels in skeletal and cardiac muscle to meet demands of exercise

83

precapillary sphincters respond only to

to local and hormonal control due to lack of innervation

84

vasomotor center is the integrating center for three autonomic reflexes

baroreflexes
•chemoreflexes
•medullary ischemic reflex

85

baroreflex

an automatic, negative feedback response to changes in blood pressure
–increases in BP detected by carotid sinuses
–signals sent to brainstem by way of glossopharyngeal nerve

86

baroreflexes important in

short-term regulation of BP but not in cases of chronic hypertension
–adjustments for rapid changes in posture

87

chemoreflex

an automatic response to changes in blood chemistry
–especially pH, and concentrations of O2 and CO2

88

chemoreceptors

called aortic bodies and carotid bodies
–located in aortic arch, subclavian arteries, external carotid arteries

89

chemoreceptors called

aortic bodies and carotid bodies
–located in aortic arch, subclavian arteries, external carotid arteries

90

primary role:

adjust respiration to changes in blood chemistry

91

secondary role

vasomotion
–hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis stimulate chemoreceptors, acting through vasomotor center to cause widespread vasoconstriction, increasing BP, increasing lung perfusion and gas exchange
–also stimulate breathing

92

medullary ischemic reflex

automatic response to a drop in perfusion of the brain
–medulla oblongata monitors its own blood supply
–activates corrective reflexes when it senses ischemia (insufficient perfusion)

93

cardiac and vasomotor centers send sympathetic signals to

heart and blood vessels
–increases heart rate and contraction force
–causes widespread vasoconstriction
–raises BP and restores normal perfusion to the brain

94

Hormonal Control

hormones influence blood pressure
–some through their vasoactive effects
–some by regulating water balance

95

angiotensin II

potent vasoconstrictor
–raises blood pressure

96

aldosterone

–promotes Na+ and water retention by kidneys
–increases blood volume and pressure

97

atrial natriuretic peptide

increases urinary sodium excretion
–reduces blood volume and promotes vasodilation
–lowers blood pressure

98

ADH

promotes water retention and raises BP
–pathologically high concentrations -vasoconstrictor

99

epinephrine and norepinephrine

effects
–most blood vessels
•binds to B-adrenergic receptors -vasoconstriction
–skeletal and cardiac muscle blood vessels
•binds to B-adrenergic receptors -vasodilation

100

Two Purposes of Vasomotion

-general method of raising or lowering BP throughout the whole body
-method of rerouting blood from one region to another for perfusion of individual organs

101

localized vasoconstriction

–if a specific artery constricts, the pressure downstream drops, pressure upstream rises
–enables routing blood to different organs as needed

102

Blood Flow in Response to Needs

arterioles shift blood flow with changing priorities

103

Capillary Exchange

two way movement of fluid across capillary walls
–water, oxygen, glucose, amino acids, lipids, minerals, antibodies, hormones, wastes, carbon dioxide, ammonia

104

Capillary Exchange

importance

•the most important blood in the body is in the capillaries
•only through capillary walls are exchanges made between the blood and surrounding tissues

105

chemicals pass through the capillary wall by three routes

–through endothelial cell cytoplasm
–intercellular clefts between endothelial cells
–filtration pores (fenestrations) of the fenestrated capillaries

106

mechanisms involved

diffusion, transcytosis, filtration, and reabsorption

107

diffusion

is the most important form of capillary exchange
–glucose and oxygen being more concentrated in blood diffuse out of the blood
–carbon dioxide and other waste being more concentrated in tissue fluid diffuse into the blood

108

capillary diffusion can only occur if:

–the solute can permeate the plasma membranes of the endothelial cell, or
–find passages large enough to pass through
•filtration pores and intercellular clefts

109

lipid soluble substances

–steroid hormones, O2and CO2diffuse easily through plasma membranes

110

water soluble substances

–glucose and electrolytes must pass through filtration pores and intercellular clefts

111

Transcytosis

•endothelial cells pick up material on one side of the plasma membrane by pinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis, transport vesicles across cell, and discharge material on other side by exocytosis
•important for fatty acids, albumin and some hormones (insulin)

112

Filtration

fluid filters out of the arterial end of the capillary and osmotically reenters at the venous end
–delivers materials to the cell and removes metabolic wastes

113

opposing forces

–blood hydrostatic pressure drives fluid out of capillary
•high on arterial end of capillary, low on venous end
–colloid osmotic pressure (COP) draws fluid into capillary
•results from plasma proteins (albumin)-more in blood
•oncotic pressure = net COP (blood COP -tissue COP)

114

Reabsorption

•capillaries reabsorb about 85% of the fluid they filter
•other 15% is absorbed by the lymphatic system and returned to the blood

115

hydrostatic pressure

physical force exerted against a surface by a liquid
•blood pressure is an example

116

Capillary Filtration

can happen at

•capillary filtration at arterial end
•capillary reabsorption at venous end

117

capillaries usually reabsorb most of the fluid they filter –exception:

–kidney capillaries in glomeruli do not reabsorb
–alveolar capillaries in lung absorb completely to keep fluid out of air spaces

118

edema

the accumulation of excess fluid in a tissue
–occurs when fluid filters into a tissue faster than it is absorbed

119

three primary causes

–increased capillary filtration
•kidney failure, histamine release, old age, poor venous return
–reduced capillary absorption
•hypoproteinemia, liver disease, dietary protein deficiency
–obstructed lymphatic drainage
•surgical removal of lymph nodes

120

Consequences of Edema

tissue necrosis
pulmonary edema
cerebral edema
severe edema or circulatory shock

121

tissue necrosis

–oxygen delivery and waste removal impaired

122

pulmonary edema

–suffocation threat

123

cerebral edema

–headaches, nausea, seizures, and coma

124

severe edema or circulatory shock

–excess fluid in tissue spaces causes low blood volume and low blood pressure

125

venous return

the flow of blood back to the heart

126

Mechanisms of Venous Return

pressure gradient
gravity
skeletal muscle pump in the limbs
thoracic (respiratory) pump
cardiac suction

127

pressure gradient

•blood pressure is the most important force in venous return
•7-13 mm Hg venous pressure towards heart
•venules (12-18 mm Hg) to central venous pressure –point where the venae cavae enter the heart (~5 mm Hg)

128

gravity

gravity drains blood from head and neck

129

skeletal muscle pump in the limbs

contracting muscle squeezed out of the compressed part of the vein

130

thoracic (respiratory) pump

•inhalation -thoracic cavity expands and thoracic pressure decreases, abdominal pressure increases forcing blood upward
–central venous pressure fluctuates
•2mm Hg-inhalation, 6mm Hg-exhalation
•blood flows faster with inhalation

131

cardiac suction

of expanding atrial space

132

exercise increases venous return in many ways:

–heart beats faster, harder increasing CO and BP
–vessels of skeletal muscles,lungs,and heart dilate and increase flow
–increased respiratory rate, increased action of thoracic pump
–increased skeletal muscle pump

133

venous pooling occurs with

–venous pressure not enough to force blood upward
–with prolonged standing, CO may be low enough to cause dizziness
•prevented by tensing leg muscles, activate skeletal muscle pump
–jet pilots wear pressure suits

134

circulatory shock

any state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the body’s metabolic needs

135

cardiogenic shock

inadequate pumping of heart (MI)

136

low venous return (LVR)

cardiac output is low because too little blood is returning to the heart

137

hypovolemic shock

most common
-loss of blood volume: trauma, burns, dehydration

138

obstructed venous return shock

-tumor or aneurysm compresses a vein

139

venous pooling (vascular) shock

long periods of standing, sitting or widespread vasodilation

140

neurogenic shock

loss of vasomotor tone, vasodilation
–causes from emotional shock or brainstem injury

141

septic shock

–bacterial toxins trigger vasodilation and increased capillary permeability

142

anaphylactic shock

severe immune reaction to antigen, histamine release, generalized vasodilation, increased capillary permeability

143

Responses to Circulatory Shock

•compensated shock
•decompensated shock

144

compensated shock

several homeostatic mechanisms bring about spontaneous recovery
•decreased BP triggers baroreflex and production of angiotensin II, both counteract shock by stimulating vasoconstriction
•if person faints and falls to horizontal position, gravity restores blood flow to brain
–quicker if feet are raised

145

Decompensated shock

if compensating mechanisms inadequate, several life-threatening positive feedback loops occur

146

poor cardiac output results in

myocardial ischemia and infarction
•further weakens the heart and reduces output

147

slow circulation can lead to

disseminated intravascular coagulation
•vessels become congested with clotted blood
•venous return grows worse

148

ischemia and acidosis of brainstem

depresses vasomotor and cardiac centers
•loss of vasomotor tone, further dilation, and further drop in BP and cardiac output

149

damage to cardiac and brain tissue

may be too great to survive

150

Special Circulatory Routes-Brain

•total blood flow to the brain fluctuates less than that of any other organ (700 mL/min)
–seconds of deprivation causes loss of consciousness
–4-5 minutes causes irreversible brain damage
–blood flow can be shifted from one active brain region to another

151

brain regulates its own

blood flow to match changes in BP and chemistry
–cerebral arteries dilate as systemic BP drops, constrict as BP rises
–main chemical stimulus: pH

152

hypercapnia

CO2 levels increase in brain, pH decreases, triggers vasodilation

153

hypocapnia

raises pH, stimulates vasoconstriction
–occurs with hyperventilation, may lead to ischemia, dizziness ,and sometimes syncope

154

transient ischemic attacks

(TIAs ) –brief episodes of cerebral ischemia
–caused by spasms of diseased cerebral arteries
–dizziness, loss of vision, weakness, paralysis, headache or aphasia
–lasts from a moment to a few hours
–often early warning of impending stroke

155

stroke

cerebral vascular accident (CVA)
–sudden death of brain tissue caused by ischemia
•atherosclerosis, thrombosis, ruptured aneurysm
–effects range from unnoticeable to fatal
•blindness, paralysis, loss of sensation, loss of speech common
–recovery depends on surrounding neurons, collateral circulation

156

Special Circulatory Routes Skeletal Muscle

•highly variable flow depending on state of exertion

157

at rest:

–arterioles constrict
–most capillary beds shut down
–total flow about 1L/min

158

during exercise

–arterioles dilate in response to epinephrine and sympathetic nerves
–precapillary sphincters dilate due to muscle metabolites like lactic acid, CO2
–blood flow can increase 20 fold
•muscular contraction impedes flow
–isometric contraction causes fatigue faster than intermittent isotonic contractions

159

Special Circulatory Routes Lungs

low pulmonary blood pressure (25/10 mm Hg)
–flow slower, more time for gas exchange
–engaged in capillary fluid absorption
•oncotic pressure overrides hydrostatic pressure
•prevents fluid accumulation in alveolar walls and lumens

160

unique response to hypoxia

–pulmonary arteries constrict in diseased area
–redirects flow to better ventilated region

161

Pulmonary Circulation

•pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries to lungs
–lobar branches for each lobe (3 right, 2 left)
•pulmonary veins return to left atrium
–increased O2 and reduced CO2 levels

162

Pulmonary Capillaries Near Alveoli

•basketlike capillary beds surround alveoli
•exchange of gases with air and blood at alveoli

163

Major Systemic Arteries

•supplies oxygen and nutrients to all organs

164

Major Branches of Aorta

ascending aorta
aortic arch
descending aorta

165

ascending aorta

–right and left coronary arteries supply heart

166

aortic arch

–brachiocephalic
–left common carotid
–left subclavian

167

brachiocephalic

•right common carotid supplying right side of head
•right subclavian supplying right shoulder and upper limb

168

left common carotid

supplying left side of head

169

left subclavian

supplying shoulder and upper limb

170

descending aorta

–thoracic aorta above diaphragm
–abdominal aorta below diaphragm

171

Arteries of the Head and Neck

common carotid divides into internal and external carotids
–external carotid supplies most external head structures

172

Arterial Supply of Brain

paired vertebral arteries combine to form basilar artery on pons

173

Circle of Willis

on base of brain formed from anastomosis of basilar and internal carotid arteries
•supplies brain, internal ear and orbital structures
–anterior, middle and posterior cerebral
–superior, anterior and posterior cerebellar

174

Major Systemic Veins

deep veins run parallel to arteries while superficial veins have many anastomoses

175

Deep Veins of Head and Neck

•large, thin-walled dural sinuses form in between layers of dura mater
•drain blood from brain to internal jugular vein

176

Superficial Veins of Head and Neck

internal jugular vein
external jugular vein
subclavian vein

177

internal jugular vein

receives most of the blood from the brain

178

external jugular vein

branches of external jugular vein drain the external structures of the head

179

subclavian vein

upper limb is drained by subclavian vein

180

Arteries of the Thorax

•internal thoracic, anterior intercostal, and pericardiophrenic arise from subclavian artery

181

thoracic aorta supplies

viscera and body wall
–bronchial, esophageal, and mediastinal branches
–posterior intercostal and phrenic arteries

182

Major Branches of Abdominal Aorta

See diagram

183

Celiac Trunk Branches

branches of celiac trunk supply upper abdominal viscera -stomach, spleen, liver, and pancreas

184

Mesenteric Arteries

See diagram

185

Inferior Vena Cava and Branches

See diagram

186

Veins of Hepatic Portal System

drains nutrient rich blood from viscera (stomach, spleen and intestines) to liver so that blood sugar levels are maintained

187

Arteries of the Upper Limb

subclavian passes between clavicle and 1st rib
•vessel changes names as passes to different regions
–subclavian to axillary to brachial to radial and ulnar
–brachial used for BP and radialartery for pulse

188

Superficial and Deep Veins of Upper Limb

See diagram

189

Arteries of the Lower Limb

branches to the lower limb arise from external iliac branch of the common iliac artery

190

Superficial and Deep Veins of Lower Limb

See diagram

191

Arterial Pressure Points

some major arteries close to surface which allows for palpation for pulse and serve as pressure points to reduce arterial bleeding

192

hypertension

most common cardiovascular disease affecting about 30% of Americans over 50

193

•“the silent killer”

–major cause of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure
•damages heart by increasing afterload
–myocardium enlarges until overstretched and inefficient
•renal arterioles thicken in response to stress
–drop in renal BP leads to salt retention (aldosterone) and worsens the overall hypertension

194

primary hypertension

–obesity, sedentary behavior, diet, nicotine

195

secondary hypertension

secondary to other disease
–kidney disease, hyperthyroidism