Flashcards in 01 Anatomy Study Guide Deck (117)
common flexor origin
Which surface of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius?
Which nerve innervates muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm?
What are the functions of the biceps brachii? At which joints do these movements occur?
- flex elbow
- flex/abduct shoulder
- supinates radioulnar joint
What nerve and vessels pass through the quadrangular space?
What are the movements permitted at the elbow?
flexion and extension
What does the annular ligament allow for?
pronation and supination of hand
What muscles pronate the forearm? What nerve innervates them?
- pronator teres, pronator quadratus
- median n.
What muscles do the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?
Which nerves lie in both anterior and posterior compartments of the arm?
median and radial
Where is the radial nerve susceptible to compression within the arm
humerus - radial groove
The brachial artery is the distal communication of the _____ artery
Which artery accompanies the radial nerve?
Infection and inflammation of the synovial cavity of the elbow joint would inhibit what movements?
What are the muscles that are prime movers in flexion and extension at the elbow?
What is/are the nerves that innervate the elbow flexors?
In a lesion of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, what sensory deficits would be seen?
The elbow joint is a compound synovial joint made up of which articulations?
What movements are permitted at the elbow?
What ligaments support the elbow joint?
- annular ligament
The synovial cavity of the elbow joint is normally continuous with the synovial cavity of which other synovial joint?
proximal radioulnar joint
The head of the radius articulates with the ______ of the humerus
The biceps is attached to the radius at the
The palpable protuberance between the tendons of the ECRL and ECRB laterally and the EPL medially is the
dorsal tubercle on the posterior surface
The bony protuberance on the posterior aspect of the forearm just above the medial side of the wrist is the
Which of the superficial muscles of the anterior forearm does not act on the wrist?
In the distal forearm, the radial artery lies between the tendons of
flexor carpi radialis
At the wrist, the deep pair of tendons of the FDS move which digits?
digits 2 and 4
Which flexors of the elbow are innervated by the radial nerve?
brachioradialis and partially the brachialis (some musculocutaneous as well)
Which of the extensors act only at the wrist joint?
What are the muscles of the superficial group that extend the interphalangeal joint
- central band of extensor mechanism
- can't fully extend finger alone
Which nerve innervates all 3 of the outcropping muscles?
posterior interosseous branch of radial n.
What forms the anterior border of the anatomical snuff box?
- extensor pollicis brevis
- abductor pollicis longus
Which artery lies in the anatomical snuff box?
Which muscle is the most powerful supinator of the forearm?
Which muscle is the primary pronator of the arm?
The FCR is involved in which movements at the wrist?
- wrist flexion
- radial deviation
Which muscles act together for ulnar deviation?
The dorsal digital nerves are branches of what nerve?
superficial branch of radial nerve
What nerve innervates the extensor pollicis longus?
Damage to which nerve would impair or prevent pronation of the forearm
Damage to which nerve would produce radial deviation when the attempt is made to flex the wrist
The radial artery lies between which two tendons of the wrist?
The radial artery passes between the two heads of the
The muscles of the posterior forearm are supplied by branches of which artery?
What are the muscles that attach to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus?
Name 2 distinguishing features of typical cervical vertebrae
- bifid spinous processes
- uncinate processes
- transverse foramina
3 distinguishing features of thoracic vertebrae
- downward sloping spinous process
- facets mostly in sagittal plane
- costal facets
C2 spinal nerve passes through what bony opening?
intervertebral foramen of C1-C2 spinal segment
What structure passes through the transverse foramina?
What is the normal curve in the cervical spine?
A hyperextension injury such as whiplash produces tears in which ligament of the cervical vertebral column?
Which ligament is attached to the laminae of the vertebrae?
The joints between the bodies of vertebrae and intervertebral discs are of what type?
uncovertebral joints (joints of Lushka)
What movements of the head are permitted at the AO joints?
flexion, extension, slight lateral bending
The AA joint is what type?
The joints between articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are called ______ joints
Which muscles flex the head on the neck?
- longus colli
- longus capitis
- rectus capitis anterior
Which muscles rotate the head to the opposite side?
- longus colli
Which group of muscles moves the pectoral girdle
Acting unilaterally, the SCM has what effect on the movement in the head?
- contralateral rotation
- ipsilateral flexion
The proximal end of the ulna articulates with this on the humerus
This ligament holds the radial head in place
These nerves supply muscles that produce flexion of the elbow
The normal valgus at the elbow is called the
Damage to this nerve in the brachial plexus would produce loss of elbow extension and weakened elbow flexion
the wrist joint
carpal bones that articulate at the wrist
ligament that limits ulnar deviation
ligament that stabilizes the metacarpal
deep transverse metacarpal ligament
muscles that attach to the dorsal surfaces of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals
muscles that flex the elbow
muscles that extend the elbow
- extensor digitorum
- extensor indicis
- extensor digiti minimi
muscles of the thenar eminence
- flexor pollicis brevis
- abductor pollicis
- opponens pollicis
Which muscles of the hand are attached to the tendons of other muscles?
This nerve exits the vertebral column above the C6 vertebrae
C6 spinal nerve
damage to a spinal nerve
numbness over the middle finger might be due to compression of this spinal nerve
Damage to the nerve produces this in the distal segment
After nerve injury, for regeneration to occur, this must be intact
- CT sheaths
cell bodies of sensory neurons are always found here
- sensory (dorsal root) ganglia
motor neuron cell bodies are located here
ventral horn of spinal cord
loss of only sensory function of a dermatome without motor loss can only happen if the damage is here
this branch supplies only the true back muscles and the skin over them
cutaneous nerve have, in addition to sensory axons, this type of axon which supply blood vessels and arrector pili muscles
nerves that supply the skin of the hand
muscles that abduct the fingers
intrinsic muscles of the hand that flexes the pinky finger
flexor digiti minimi brevis
muscle that attaches to distal phalange
this group of intrinsic hand muscles moves the little finger
Damage to the radial nerve in the arm will produce this in the thumb
loss of sensation over the dorsal surface
Damage to the ulnar nerve at the wrist would leave the thumb without this
A slash wound to the palm would leave a patient with weak thumb flexion, abduction and opposition. This injury has likely damaged this nerve
recurrent branch of median nerve
Paralysis of thumb extension with weak, but not absence of thumb abduction would indicate involvement of this nerve
Absence of flexion of the thumb IP with intact flexion of thumb MCP, abduction, adduction, extension, and opposition would indicate damage to this nerve
nerve involved in CTS
syndrome where there is pain with pronation and impaired flexion of the thumb and 2 fingers, as well as thenar atrophy
pronator teres syndrome
nerve likely damaged in cases of proximal radial fractures
deep branch of radial nerve
damage to the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus would mimic damage to which nerve at the hand?
A syndrome that results in deep grooves between metacarpals
ulnar groove syndrome
What thumb functions are impaired with damage at the Arcade of Frohse?
can't get a grip on a key (no index abduction or thumb adduction)
ulnar nerve syndrome (at canal of Guyon or proximal)
Thenar atrophy, clumsiness with lateral 2 digits, wrist flexion intact
median nerve entrapment at carpal tunnel
Loss of abduction/adduction of fingers, adduction of the thumb, atrophy and weakness of hypothenar muscles; intact wrist flexion and DIP flexion.
Ulnar nerve entrapment at the Canal of Guyon
Loss of MCP extension, radial deviation on attempted wrist extension, loss of thumb extension and weak thumb abduction
posterior interosseous syndrome or Arcade of Frohse entrapment
Weak elbow extension and flexion, supination, absent wrist, finger & thumb extension, weak thumb abduction
Radial nerve at the spinal groove
Loss of flexion of the thumb and lateral 2 digits, weak thumb abduction; inability to fully extend the lateral 2 fingers, has ulnar deviation upon attempted wrist flexion; intact thumb adduction and extension; loss of pronation of forearm
entrapment of the median nerve at the ligament of Struthers (or pronator teres).
A motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it innervates
When beginning a strengthening exercise protocol, which motor unit types are recruited first?
small motor units
If a patient has greater ROM in finger flexion passively than he can achieve actively, his finger flexors have this type of insufficiency.
Of the following, the one present ONLY if the nerve injury was along the humerus, and NOT at the supinator: 1) Weak thumb extension, 2) Weak index finger extension, 3) Numbness over the posterior lateral aspect of the hand
Numbness over the posterior lateral aspect of the hand
Damage to which nerves would impair the ability to flex at the MCP joints and extend at the PIP and DIP joints?
Median and ulnar nerves
Innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris
Innervates the pronator quadratus
anterior interosseous nerve
Innervates the muscles that supinate the forearm
Musculocutaneous and deep branch of the radial nerve
Innervates wrist extensors