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Flashcards in 01 Anatomy Study Guide Deck (117):
1

common flexor origin

medial epicondyle

2

Which surface of the humerus articulates with the head of the radius?

capitulum

3

Which nerve innervates muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm?

radial

4

What are the functions of the biceps brachii? At which joints do these movements occur?

- flex elbow
- flex/abduct shoulder
- supinates radioulnar joint

5

What nerve and vessels pass through the quadrangular space?

axillary nerve

6

What are the movements permitted at the elbow?

flexion and extension

7

What does the annular ligament allow for?

pronation and supination of hand

8

What muscles pronate the forearm? What nerve innervates them?

- pronator teres, pronator quadratus
- median n.

9

What muscles do the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?

- biceps
- brachialis

10

Which nerves lie in both anterior and posterior compartments of the arm?

median and radial

11

Where is the radial nerve susceptible to compression within the arm

humerus - radial groove

12

The brachial artery is the distal communication of the _____ artery

axillary

13

Which artery accompanies the radial nerve?

radial artery

14

Infection and inflammation of the synovial cavity of the elbow joint would inhibit what movements?

flexion/extension
pronation/supination

15

What are the muscles that are prime movers in flexion and extension at the elbow?

- biceps
- brachialis
- brachioradialis
- triceps

16

What is/are the nerves that innervate the elbow flexors?

- musculocutaneous
- radial

17

In a lesion of the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, what sensory deficits would be seen?

- numbness
- paresthesia

18

The elbow joint is a compound synovial joint made up of which articulations?

- ulnohumeral
- radiohumeral
- radioulnar

19

What movements are permitted at the elbow?

flexion
extension

20

What ligaments support the elbow joint?

- annular ligament
- UCL
- RCL

21

The synovial cavity of the elbow joint is normally continuous with the synovial cavity of which other synovial joint?

proximal radioulnar joint

22

The head of the radius articulates with the ______ of the humerus

capitulum

23

The biceps is attached to the radius at the

radial tuberosity

24

The palpable protuberance between the tendons of the ECRL and ECRB laterally and the EPL medially is the

dorsal tubercle on the posterior surface

25

The bony protuberance on the posterior aspect of the forearm just above the medial side of the wrist is the

ulnar styloid

26

Which of the superficial muscles of the anterior forearm does not act on the wrist?

pronator teres

27

In the distal forearm, the radial artery lies between the tendons of

flexor carpi radialis
brachioradialis

28

At the wrist, the deep pair of tendons of the FDS move which digits?

digits 2 and 4

29

Which flexors of the elbow are innervated by the radial nerve?

brachioradialis and partially the brachialis (some musculocutaneous as well)

30

Which of the extensors act only at the wrist joint?

- ECRL
- ECRB
- ECU

31

What are the muscles of the superficial group that extend the interphalangeal joint

extensor digitorum
- central band of extensor mechanism
- can't fully extend finger alone

32

Which nerve innervates all 3 of the outcropping muscles?

posterior interosseous branch of radial n.

33

What forms the anterior border of the anatomical snuff box?

- extensor pollicis brevis
- abductor pollicis longus

*1st compartment

34

Which artery lies in the anatomical snuff box?

radial

35

Which muscle is the most powerful supinator of the forearm?

supinator

36

Which muscle is the primary pronator of the arm?

pronator teres

37

The FCR is involved in which movements at the wrist?

- wrist flexion
- radial deviation

38

Which muscles act together for ulnar deviation?

- FCU
- ECU

39

The dorsal digital nerves are branches of what nerve?

superficial branch of radial nerve

40

What nerve innervates the extensor pollicis longus?

posterior interosseous

41

Damage to which nerve would impair or prevent pronation of the forearm

median nerve

42

Damage to which nerve would produce radial deviation when the attempt is made to flex the wrist

median nerve
maybe ulnar?

43

The radial artery lies between which two tendons of the wrist?

- FCR
- brachioradialis

44

The radial artery passes between the two heads of the

biceps

45

The muscles of the posterior forearm are supplied by branches of which artery?

brachial

46

What are the muscles that attach to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus?

- ECRL
- ECRB
- ED
- ECU
- EDM

47

Name 2 distinguishing features of typical cervical vertebrae

- bifid spinous processes
- uncinate processes
- transverse foramina

48

3 distinguishing features of thoracic vertebrae

- downward sloping spinous process
- facets mostly in sagittal plane
- costal facets

49

C2 spinal nerve passes through what bony opening?

intervertebral foramen of C1-C2 spinal segment

50

What structure passes through the transverse foramina?

vertebral artery

51

What is the normal curve in the cervical spine?

30-35˚

52

A hyperextension injury such as whiplash produces tears in which ligament of the cervical vertebral column?

ALL

53

Which ligament is attached to the laminae of the vertebrae?

ligamentum flavum

54

The joints between the bodies of vertebrae and intervertebral discs are of what type?

uncovertebral joints (joints of Lushka)

55

What movements of the head are permitted at the AO joints?

flexion, extension, slight lateral bending

56

The AA joint is what type?

pivot synovial

57

The joints between articular processes of adjacent vertebrae are called ______ joints

facet/zygapophyseal

58

Which muscles flex the head on the neck?

- longus colli
- longus capitis
- rectus capitis anterior

59

Which muscles rotate the head to the opposite side?

- scalenes
- longus colli
- SCM

60

Which group of muscles moves the pectoral girdle

ST

61

Acting unilaterally, the SCM has what effect on the movement in the head?

- contralateral rotation
- ipsilateral flexion

62

The proximal end of the ulna articulates with this on the humerus

trochlea

63

This ligament holds the radial head in place

annular ligament

64

These nerves supply muscles that produce flexion of the elbow

- musculocutaneous
- radial

65

The normal valgus at the elbow is called the

carrying angle

66

Damage to this nerve in the brachial plexus would produce loss of elbow extension and weakened elbow flexion

radial nerve

67

the wrist joint

radiocarpal joint

68

carpal bones that articulate at the wrist

- scaphoid
- lunate
- triquetrum

69

ligament that limits ulnar deviation

radiocarpal ligament

70

ligament that stabilizes the metacarpal

deep transverse metacarpal ligament

71

muscles that attach to the dorsal surfaces of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpals

ECRL
ECRB

72

muscles that flex the elbow

- biceps
- brachialis
- brachioradialis

73

muscles that extend the elbow

- ECRL
- ECRB
- ECU
- extensor digitorum
- extensor indicis
- extensor digiti minimi

74

muscles of the thenar eminence

- flexor pollicis brevis
- abductor pollicis
- opponens pollicis

75

Which muscles of the hand are attached to the tendons of other muscles?

lumbricals

76

This nerve exits the vertebral column above the C6 vertebrae

C6 spinal nerve

77

damage to a spinal nerve

radiculopathy

78

numbness over the middle finger might be due to compression of this spinal nerve

C7

79

Damage to the nerve produces this in the distal segment

Wallerian degeneration

80

After nerve injury, for regeneration to occur, this must be intact

- myelin
- CT sheaths

81

cell bodies of sensory neurons are always found here

- sensory (dorsal root) ganglia

82

motor neuron cell bodies are located here

ventral horn of spinal cord

83

loss of only sensory function of a dermatome without motor loss can only happen if the damage is here

dorsal roots

84

this branch supplies only the true back muscles and the skin over them

dorsal rami

85

cutaneous nerve have, in addition to sensory axons, this type of axon which supply blood vessels and arrector pili muscles

sympathetic axons

86

nerves that supply the skin of the hand

- median
- radial
- ulnar

87

muscles that abduct the fingers

dorsal interossei

88

intrinsic muscles of the hand that flexes the pinky finger

flexor digiti minimi brevis

89

muscle that attaches to distal phalange

FDP

90

this group of intrinsic hand muscles moves the little finger

hypothenar eminence

91

Damage to the radial nerve in the arm will produce this in the thumb

loss of sensation over the dorsal surface

92

Damage to the ulnar nerve at the wrist would leave the thumb without this

adduction

93

A slash wound to the palm would leave a patient with weak thumb flexion, abduction and opposition. This injury has likely damaged this nerve

recurrent branch of median nerve

94

Paralysis of thumb extension with weak, but not absence of thumb abduction would indicate involvement of this nerve

posterior interosseous

95

Absence of flexion of the thumb IP with intact flexion of thumb MCP, abduction, adduction, extension, and opposition would indicate damage to this nerve

anterior interosseous

96

nerve involved in CTS

median

97

syndrome where there is pain with pronation and impaired flexion of the thumb and 2 fingers, as well as thenar atrophy

pronator teres syndrome

98

nerve likely damaged in cases of proximal radial fractures

deep branch of radial nerve

99

damage to the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus would mimic damage to which nerve at the hand?

ulnar

100

A syndrome that results in deep grooves between metacarpals

ulnar groove syndrome

101

What thumb functions are impaired with damage at the Arcade of Frohse?

thumb extension
abduction

102

can't get a grip on a key (no index abduction or thumb adduction)

ulnar nerve syndrome (at canal of Guyon or proximal)

103

Thenar atrophy, clumsiness with lateral 2 digits, wrist flexion intact

median nerve entrapment at carpal tunnel

104

Loss of abduction/adduction of fingers, adduction of the thumb, atrophy and weakness of hypothenar muscles; intact wrist flexion and DIP flexion.

Ulnar nerve entrapment at the Canal of Guyon

105

Loss of MCP extension, radial deviation on attempted wrist extension, loss of thumb extension and weak thumb abduction

posterior interosseous syndrome or Arcade of Frohse entrapment

106

Weak elbow extension and flexion, supination, absent wrist, finger & thumb extension, weak thumb abduction

Radial nerve at the spinal groove

107

Loss of flexion of the thumb and lateral 2 digits, weak thumb abduction; inability to fully extend the lateral 2 fingers, has ulnar deviation upon attempted wrist flexion; intact thumb adduction and extension; loss of pronation of forearm

entrapment of the median nerve at the ligament of Struthers (or pronator teres).

108

A motor neuron and the muscle fibers that it innervates

motor unit

109

When beginning a strengthening exercise protocol, which motor unit types are recruited first?

small motor units

110

If a patient has greater ROM in finger flexion passively than he can achieve actively, his finger flexors have this type of insufficiency.

active insufficiency

111

Of the following, the one present ONLY if the nerve injury was along the humerus, and NOT at the supinator: 1) Weak thumb extension, 2) Weak index finger extension, 3) Numbness over the posterior lateral aspect of the hand

Numbness over the posterior lateral aspect of the hand

112

Damage to which nerves would impair the ability to flex at the MCP joints and extend at the PIP and DIP joints?

Median and ulnar nerves

113

Innervates the flexor carpi ulnaris

ulnar nerve

114

Innervates the pronator quadratus

anterior interosseous nerve

115

Innervates the muscles that supinate the forearm

Musculocutaneous and deep branch of the radial nerve

116

Innervates wrist extensors

radial nerve

117

Nerves repaired for a strong power grip

Posterior interosseous deep branch of radial (wrist extensors) and ulnar and median, and anterior interosseous nerves (finger flexors)