01 C-Spine Flashcards Preview

7202 Anatomy > 01 C-Spine > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01 C-Spine Deck (61):
1

reverse lordosis

muscle spasms cause the spine to straighten out

2

unique features of cervical vertebrae

- greater mobility than the rest of the spine
- smaller spinous processes, discs, etc. (spinous processes alter mechanical advantages)

3

Fractures more common in C1 or C2?

C1

4

There are no intervertebral discs between which joints?

AO
AA

5

pedicle

connects anterior to posterior elements

6

laminae

connects facets to spinous processes

7

uncinate process

- lateral border of the body
- unique to C3-C7
- uncovertebral joint

8

plumb line

mastoid through acromion to 2nd sacral vertebra
- posterior to hip
- anterior to knee
- anterior to foot

9

center of gravity

2nd sacral vertebra

10

articular pillar

landmark
space between transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

11

vertebral prominence

- sticks out at 90˚
- C7 spinous process

12

most commonly fractured element of c-spine

C7 spinous process

13

ventral ramus goes on to form

brachial plexus

14

The spinal cord lies between the:

- ligamentum flavum
- PLL

15

intertransverse ligaments located:

between transverse processes

16

interspinous ligaments located:

- deep
- between spinous processes

17

supraspinous ligaments located:

- most external
- between spinous processes

18

ligamentum flavum located:

connects laminae of adjoining vertebrae

19

If a structure is ____ to the spinal cord, it resists extension. If _____, it resists flexion

- anterior
- posterior

20

If a ligament is torn, what does it look like?

wavy

21

spinal ligaments that limit flexion

- interspinous
- supraspinous
- PLL
- ligamentum flavum
- intertransverse

22

whiplash: which elements of the neck are more commonly injured?

- anterior
- greater degree of extension in the neck
- ALL prevents hyperextension

23

position of AO membrane

wraps around AO segment

24

Where does the tectorial membrane go?

into the skull

25

cervical vertebrae facet angles

generally 45˚

26

facet joint type

synovial (diarthroses)

27

facet joints arthrokinematically

flat/planar
- approximation
- gapping

28

components of the vertebral segment AKA IV junction

- superior vertebrae
- joints of vertebral bodies and arches
- IV disc
- soft tissue that supports and moves segment
- inferior vertebrae

29

VERY little movement at which joint?

AO

30

close-packed position

extension of the spine

31

open-packed position

flexion
- creates space in IV foramen

32

deep muscles of the back are organized into 3 layers

- superficial
- intermediate
- deep

33

deep muscles:
superficial

- splenius capitis
- splenius cervicis

34

deep muscles:
intermediate

erector spinae (3 components)

35

3 erector spinae muscles

- spinalis
- longissimus
- iliocostalis

36

What are the deep layer of the deep back muscles called?

transversospinalis

37

What is the function of the deep back muscles (deep layer)?

- give the spine fine motor control
- ill-defined attachments

38

transversospinalis muscles

- multifidus
- rotator longus and brevis
- levator costae longus and brevis
- interspinalis
- intertransversarius
- semispinalis

39

location of transversospinalis muscles

between transverse and spinous processes deep to erector spinae

40

suboccipital muscles

- splenius capitis
- semispinalis capitis
- rectus capitis major and minor
- rectus capitis anterior and lateral

41

upper cervical

occiput to C3

42

lower cervical

C3-C7

43

anterior neck muscles
primary flexors

- longus colli
- lonus capitis

*core muscles for cervical spine*

44

passive insufficiency

- muscle is overstretched, doesn't contract effectively
- put neck in flexion to reduce lordosis and strengthen

45

scalenes actions

- lateral flexors (ribs don't elevate)
- contralateral rotators

*reverse action when used as an accessory muscle (rib elevation)

46

SCM action

- pulls upper cervical spine into extension
- pulls lower cervical spine into flexion
- contralateral rotator

47

Where does the brachial plexus exit?

between anterior and middle scalenes

48

primary movements in T-spine

lateral flexion

49

Why is there not much movement other than flexion in the thoracic spine?

spinous processes are vertical between T1 and T8

50

transitional area of thoracic vertebrae

T9-T12
become more lumbar-like

51

first part of the body to display arthritis

T9-T12 thoracic vertebrae
- one of the hardest parts of the body to treat
- facet joints are oriented differently than the adjacent joints

52

internal obliques action

ipsilateral rotators

53

external obliques action

contralateral rotators

54

During trunk rotation, what does the RA do?

flexes to stabilize

55

What muscles are stretched in retraction?

- posterior side
- must contract anterior muscles to reduce lordosis

56

Forward head posture is a combination of:

- upper cervical extension
- lower cervical flexion

57

Abnormal sitting posture
larger curves = more strain

- thoracic extensors lengthened and overworked
- cervical extensors shortened and overworked
- anterior cervical and pectoral muscles shortened

58

overworked

muscles put at a mechanical disadvantage

59

kyphosis
- suboccipital muscles
- lower cervical
- thoracic extensors

- suboccipitals shortened and strained
- lower cervical curv extends thoracic kyphosis
- thoracic extensors lengthened and overworked

60

scoliosis severity measured by

Cobb angle
- maximal angle between the uppermost and lowermost segments involved

61

What does the alar ligament limit?

extension