01 Elbow Flashcards Preview

7202 Anatomy > 01 Elbow > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01 Elbow Deck (68):
1

humerus

- long bone of the arm
- has a shaft, rounded head, and a distal end

2

Anatomical neck of the humerus is proximal or distal to the head

distal

3

Greater tubercle is located on the _____ aspect of the proximal humerus

lateral

4

Lesser tubercle is on the _______ humerus just distal to the anatomical neck

anteromedial

5

The intertubercular sulcus is a groove for _____

LHB tendon

6

medial epicondyle

common flexor origin

7

lateral epicondyle

common extensor origin

8

Lateral articular surface of the humerus is known as the

capitulum

9

The capitulum articulates with the

radial head

10

The medial articular surface of the humerus is known as the

trochlea

11

The trochlea articulates with the

trochlear notch of the ulna

12

Coranoid and radial head lie on the

anterior distal surface

13

Olecranon fossa lies on the

posterior distal surface

14

Elbow joint is a compound synovial joint that includes

-humeroradial joint
-humeroulnar joint

15

Location of the humeroradial joint

between the capitulum of the humerus and head of the radius

16

Two collateral ligaments that support the elbow joint

-medial (ulnar) collateral
-lateral (radial) collateral

17

Movements permitted at the elbow joint

- flexion
- extension

18

Synovial cavity of the elbow joint is continuous with the synovial cavity of which other synovial joint

superior (proximal) radioulnar joint

19

Which nerve innervates muscles of the posterior compartment of the arm

radial

20

Which nerves innervate the forearm pronators

-pronator teres (median)
-pronator quadratus (anterior interosseous...median)

21

Biceps tendon reflex correlates with

C5

22

Brachioradialis tendon reflex correlates with

C6

23

Triceps tendon reflex correlates with

C7

24

bursa in the elbow

olecranon bursa

25

Bursa sacs communicate with the joint through the...

articular capsule

26

The UCL prevents...

valgus (hyperextension)

27

Annular ligament of the radial head supports the proximal radio-ulnar joint while permitting rotation during

- pronation
- supination

28

brachium

upper arm

29

The head of the radius forms a ______ joint with the capitulum of the humerus

pivot synovial joint

30

Why is the fat pad not impacted during flexion?

biceps blocks it

31

function of interosseous membrane

- transfers or dissipates load
- radius is a bigger, bulkier bone, but a lot of stress goes through it »transfers load to the ulna

32

distal radius articulates with the

scaphoid and lunate carpal bones at the radiocarpal joint

33

AVN is common in which bone and why?

radial head
due to fractures at the neck

34

What force does the MCL resist?

valgus

35

What is referred to when athletes tear an elbow ligament?

MCL

36

What does the LCL blend with?

annular ligament

37

Where does pronation and supination occur?

at proximal and distal radioulnar joints

38

During ________, the radius is crossed over the ulna

pronation

39

arthrokinematics of pronation and supination

1. proximal: SPIN
2. distal: CONCAVE ON CONVEX

40

distal attachment of biceps brachii

radial tuberosity

41

What does the musculocutaneous nerve innervate?

- biceps
- brachialis

42

brachial artery

- goes through anterior compartment of the arm
- exits medial to the bicipital aponeurosis at elbow

43

radial nerve path

- passes posterior to humerus between biceps head
- winds around spiral groove to lateral arm
- reaches anterior compartment above the elbow

44

ulnar nerve path

- travels in anterior compartment
- passes from anterior to posterior through medial IM septum of distal ⅓ of arm
- at elbow, it passes posterior to medial epicondyle

45

ulnar nerve doesn’t innervate

muscles of the forearm

46

Which nerve is susceptible to injury?

ulnar nerve at the medial epicondyle

47

Which nerve is vulnerable in humeral fracture?

radial nerve

48

Where does the radial nerve enter the anterior compartment of the arm?

through the lateral intermuscular septum in the distal arm

49

elbow extensors

1. triceps
2. anconeous

both innervated by radial nerve

50

Where is the ulnar nerve located at the cubital fossa?

- posterior to the intermuscular septum
- posterior to the medial epicondyle in the cubital tunnel

51

The _____ nerve lies deep to the brachioradialis. It divides into the deep and superficial branches. The superficial branch continues under the ________ and the deep enters the _______.

1. radial
2. brachioradialis
3. supinator

52

pronator muscles are innervated by which nerve?

median

53

What muscles are responsible for supination and what innervates them?

- supinator (radial nerve)
- biceps (musculocutaneous)
- extensor pollicis longus

54

Innervation of wrist flexors

- ulnar nerve innervates medial (ulnar) wrist flexor
- all others innervated by branches of the median nerve

55

muscles that cross the elbow
from medial epicondyle

1. flexor pollicis longus (FPL)
2. palmeris longus
3. flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS)
4. flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU)
5. flexor carpi radialis (FCR)
6. pronator teres

56

muscles that cross the elbow
from common tendon off lateral epicondyle

1. extensor digitorum
2. extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL)
3. extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB)
4. supinator
5. anconeous

57

deep flexors that don’t cross the elbow

flexor digitorum profundus

58

deep extensors that don’t cross the elbow

1. abductor pollicis longus
2. extensor pollicis longus
3. extensor pollicis brevis
4. extensor indicis

59

wrist extensors

1. extensor carpi radialis longus
2. extensor carpi radialis brevis
3. extensor carpi ulnaris
4. extensor digitorum
5. extensor indicis
6. extensor digiti minimi

60

superficial muscles of the posterior compartment have a common attachment on _______ and are innervated by _______

- the lateral epicondyle of the humerus
- branches of the radial nerve

61

segmental innervation
C5

shoulder abduction (palpate deltoid)

62

segmental innervation
C6

elbow flexion, wrist extension

63

segmental innervation
C7

elbow extension, wrist flexion

64

segmental innervation
C8

finger flexion

65

segmental innervation
T1

finger abduction and adduction

66

carrying angle

- normal 15% angle between humerus and radioulnar long axis
- more may indicate excessive laxity or injury to MCL

67

oblique cord function

transfer distractive forces from radius to ulna

68

MCL rupture common cause

- attempts at catching oneself from a fall
- valgus producing force to elbow