01 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600 Flashcards Preview

KICS W2 > 01 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01 European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600 Deck (34):
1

Renaissance

period of rebirth of art and learning in Europe lasting from about 1300 to 1600

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humanism

focus on human potential and achievements

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secular

concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters

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patrons

people who financially supported artists

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perspective

art technique that represents three dimensions in two dimensions

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vernacular

use of native language instead of classical Latin

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Boccaccio

wrote the Decameron, a series of realistic, sometimes off-color stories

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Niccoló Machiavelli

wrote The Prince, a guide for maintaining rule

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Desiderius Erasmus

wrote The Praise of Folly and believed in a Christianity that emphasized the heart, not outward rituals or rules

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Thomas More

wrote Utopia, about an imaginary ideal society where greed, war, and conflict do not exist

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Christine de Pizan

wrote many books and defended the education of women

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William Shakespeare

famous English playwright

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Johann Gutenberg

German craftsman who developed the printing press

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indulgence

release from punishments due for a sin

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Reformation

16th-century movement for religious reform, leading to the founding of new Christian churches

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Lutherans

members of a Protestant church founded on the teachings of Martin Luther

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Protestants

members of a non-Catholic Christian church founded on the principles of the Reformation

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Peace of Augsburg

agreement in 1555 declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler

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annul

to cancel or to put an end to

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Henry VIII

made himself the head of the Church (instead of the pope) in 1534 in order to divorce his wife and marry another

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Elizabeth I

made the head of the Church of England in 1559 by Parliament

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Anglican

relating to the Church of England

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Huldrych Zwingli

Protestant reformer from Zurich, Switzerland

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John Calvin

published the Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536; became the leader of Geneva, Switzerland in 1541

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predestination

doctrine that God has decided all things beforehand, including which people willl be saved

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Calvinism

religious teachings based on the ideas of the reformer John Calvin

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theocracy

government controlled by religious leaders

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Presbyterians

members of a Protestant church governed by elders and founded by John Knox

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Anabaptists

members of a Protestant group during the Reformation who believed only adults should be baptized and that church and state should be separate

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Marguerite of Navarre

protected John Calvin from being executed for his beliefs while he lived in France

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Katherina von Bora

argued with Martin Luther about the role of women in marriage

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Catholic Reformation

16th-century movement within the Catholic church to reform itself and help Catholics remain loyal

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Jesuits

members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola

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Council of Trent

meeting of Roman Catholic leaders to rule on doctrines criticized by the Protestant reformers