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Flashcards in Anatomy of the Neck Deck (10):
1

What are the different layers of fascia in the neck?

Superficial cervical fascia - deep to the dermis, contains the platysma muscle
Deep cervical fascia
- investing - double envelope around SCM and trapezius, contains submandibular and parotid glands
- pre-tracheal - muscular layers enclosing the infrahyoid muscles, visceral layer enclosing the thyroid gland, oesophagus and trachea
- pre-vertebral - surrounds the vertebrae and surrounding muscles down to T3

2

What are the borders of the anterior triangle of the neck?

A - midline
P - anterior border of SCM
S - inferior border of the mandible

Can be further subdivided in to submandibular, submental, carotid and muscular

3

What does the carotid triangle contain?

Carotid sheath (common carotid artery, vague nerve, internal jugular vein)

4

What are the borders of the posterior triangle?

Anterior - posterior border of SCM
Posterior - anterior border of trapezius
Inferior - middle third of the clavicle between the two muscles

Can be further divided in to occipital and omoclavicular (supraclavicular)

5

What is meant by the retropharyngeal space?

It is a potential space between the alar fascia and the pretracheal fascia. It is a major route of spread of infection from the neck to the thorax. The space runs to the diaphragm.

6

What is the purpose of the suprahyoid muscles?
What are the four suprahyoid muscles?

Elevate the hyoid and larynx during swallowing. Together they contribute to the floor of the mouth
Digastric, mylohyoid, stylohyoid and geniohyoid

7

What is the purpose of the infrahyoid muscles?
What are the four infrahyoid muscles?

They anchor the hyoid, sternum, clavicles and scapula. They also depress the hyoid and larynx during swallowing and speaking
Sternohyoid, omohyoid, sternothyroid, thyrohyoid

7

Why can mild haemorrhage following thyroid surgery lead to compression of the airways?

The thyroid and the trachea are contained within the visceral part of the pretracheal fascia.
It is inelastic, haematoma within this fascia leads to compression of the trachea

8

Apart from thoracic pain and possible complications arising from blood clots, what other significant clinical complaint might a patient present with an undiagnosed aneurysm of the arch of the aorta?

Hoarse voice due to damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve causing a unilateral palsy of the vocal cords on the left

9

What is meant by the 'danger space'?

Pre-vertebral space
It is between the pre-vertebral fascia and the alar fascia
It extends slightly further down in to the mediastinum than the retropharyngeal space