01 Wrist/Hand Flashcards Preview

7202 Anatomy > 01 Wrist/Hand > Flashcards

Flashcards in 01 Wrist/Hand Deck (58):
1

wrist joint

- radiocarpal joint between distal radius, scaphoid and lunate
- fibrocartilage disc that covers distal end of ulna

2

How many hand bones do we have?

27
8 carpals
5 metacarpals
14 phalanges

3

proximal carpals

- scaphoid
- lunate
- triquetrum
- pisiform

4

distal carpals

- trapezium
- trapezoid
- capitate
- hamate

5

joints of the hand

- CMC: carpometacarpal
- MCP: metacarpalphalangeal
- IP: interphalangeal

6

Which motions allow for opposition of the thumb to happen?

- abduction
- flexion
- medial rotation

7

What ligament drags the thumb back?

Ligament complex on radial side of CMC joint

re-opposition causes tension in the ligament complex that causes the thumb to be dragged back

8

gamekeeper's thumb

- Thumb goes valgus
- synonomous with UCL rupture

9

Varus strain can cause rupture of the..

radial collateral ligament

10

Where is the CMC located?

between the base of the thumb metacarpal and the trapezium

11

Arthrokinematics of Flexion and Extension of the thumb

- Concave moving on convex
- slide and glide occurring in same direction

12

Arthrokinematics of Abduction and Adduction of the thumb

- Convex moving on concave
- slide and roll occurring in opposite directions

13

Intrinsic muscles are muscles that...

originate and insert only in the hand

14

Extrinsic muscles are muscles that...

originate in the hand but don't move the hand

15

Intrinsic Hand Muscles

-Thenar muscles (flexor, abductor, opponens)
-Hypothenar muscles of the 5th digit: little finger muscles (flexor, abductor, opponens)

16

Thenar muscles are innervated by...

Median nerve

17

Hypothenar muscles are innervated by..

Ulnar nerve

18

Intrinsic muscles of the hand: interosseous muscles

-Palmar interossei (ADDuct the digits= PAD)
-Dorsal interossei (ABDuct the digits= DAB)

19

Interosseus muscles (palmar interossei and dorsal interossei) are innervated by which nerve

ulnar nerve

20

MCP flexion

combined action of the lumbricals and interossei (both PIP and DIP)

21

IP extension

combined action of the lumbricals and interossei (both PIP and DIP)

22

True or False: lumbricals originate from bone

False; lumbricals originate from interossei

23

extrinsic muscles of the anterior forearm

-flexor digitorum profundus
-flexor digitorum superficialis
-flexor policis longus

24

Where do the lumbrical muscles that flex the MCP joint attach

tendons of the flexor digitorum profundus

25

points of the carpal arch

pisiform
tubercle of trapezium

26

The natural palmar concavity of the hand is supported by three integrated arch systems

- proximal transverse arch
- distal transverse arch
- longitudinal arch

27

proximal transverse arch

- formed by distal row of carpal bones
- capitate is its keystone
- static, retains the shape of the carpal tunnel

28

distal transverse arch

- passes through MCP joints
- sides are mobile
- allows transverse flexibility

29

longitudinal arch

- follows general shape of second and third rays
- keystone is second and third MCP joints

30

relationship between arches of the hand

- all arches are linked
- structural failure at any part can weaken the whole thing

31

CMC joint of the thumb

- located between the base of the thumb metacarpal and the trapezium
- shape of the joint allows opposition

32

opposition of the thumb combines

- flexion and abduction
- thumb is rotated 90˚ in relation to the other fingers

33

thumb: flexion and extension
along with flexion, you get

- slight medial rotation
- RCL elongation
- anterior oblique slackness

34

full thumb abduction stretches

- anterior oblique ligament (AOL)
- intermetacarpal ligament (IML)
- adductor pollicis muscle

35

muscle responsible for active roll of the thumb during abduction

abductor pollicis longus

36

normal function of grip requires

integration of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the hand and fingers

37

Which muscles have the greatest moment arm in MCP flexion?

lumbricals

38

ligaments of the MCP joint

large, ovoid articulations
- RCL and UCL (cord and accessory parts)
- palmar plates
- fibrous digital sheaths
- 3 deep transverse metacarpal ligaments

39

hand ligaments
palmar plates

- strengthen MCP joints
- resist hyperextension

40

ligaments
fibrous digital sheaths

- form tunnels (or pulleys) for the extrinsic finger flexors
- attached to palmar sides of plates

41

ligaments
3 deep transverse metacarpal ligaments

anchored to and help interconnect palmar plates

42

extensor tendons and sheaths

- cross the dorsum of the hands to attach to the central bands of the extensor mechanism of each digit

43

4 steps of finger flexion

1. intrinsic muscle activation
2. PIP joint extends
3. oblique retinacular ligament is stretched
4. DIP joint extends

44

dorsal hand
Where do the extensor digitorum and extensor pollicis tendons extend to?

middle phalanx

45

What do the fibrous digital sheaths and ulnar synovial sheaths do?

encase extrinsic digital flexor tendons

46

True or False? Extensors have individual tendons that cross the dorsum fo the hands to attach to the central bands of the extensor mechanism to each digit

true

47

Each tendon of the hand has...

a synovial sheath to permit movement under the extensor retinaculum

48

The extensor tendons are encapsulated into how many different compartments?

6

49

compartment 1

-Extensor pollicis brevis
-Abductor pollicis longus

50

compartment 2

-Extensor carpi radialis longus
-Extensor carpi radialis brevis

51

compartment 3

extensor pollicis longus

52

Structure that sits between the second and third compartment

Lister's tubercle that sits at the distal end of the radius

53

compartment 4

-extensor digitorum
-extensor indicis

54

compartment 5

extensor digit minimi

55

compartment 6

extensor carpi ulnaris

56

TFCC

triangular fibrocartilage complex

57

TFCC
What is it?

Presence of a disc that separates the two bones
between distal end of the ulna and triquetrum.

58

arcade of Froshe

common compression point for the posterior interosseous nerve (radial)