List the compartments of the thoracic cavity.
- Two pulmonary cavities
2. One central mediastinum
Each lung is covered by (X). The layer touching lung is called (Y). The other layer adheres to (Z) and is called;
X = serous pleural sac Y = visceral pleura Z = body wall
Pleural sac contains:
Serous fluid (only)
Pleural sac is functionally important because it provides/allows:
- Lungs to slide smoothly over each other
2. Surface tension to keep visceral and parietal surfaces in contact
Transitions from one part of pleura to another are called:
Costal line of reflection is:
Transition between costal and diaphragmatic pleura
Vertebral line of reflection is:
Transition between costal and mediastinal pleura (posteriorly)
Sternal line of reflection is:
Transition between costal and mediastinal pleura (anteriorly)
At (X) location of lung, there is a transition between parietal and visceral pleura.
X = hilum
The hilum is a location on (X) where:
X = lung
Structures (vessels, bronchi) enter and leave lung
What do “recesses” refer to?
Potential spaces at edges of pleural sacs (empty except at full inhalation)
List the recesses between (X) and (Y) of lungs.
X = visceral pleura (lungs) Y = parietal pleura
Innervation of pleura is dictated by:
what surface it touches
Parietal pleura innervated like (X), by (Y).
X = body wall Y = intercostal nerves
Visceral pleura innervated like (X), by (Y).
X = lung Y = plexus derived from sympathetic trunk and vagus nerve
In (X), inflammation of pleura, the (Y) layer of pleura senses the pain of the two surfaces rubbing against each other. The pain has (Z) characteristics.
X = pleurisy Y = parietal Z = sharp, localized
In (X), procedure in which fluid is sampled from pleural sac, the needle should be inserted where?
X = thoracentesis
Between parietal and visceral pleura
T/F: Aside from the lungs/pleura, the mediastinum contains all thoracic viscera and structures.
T/F: There is a physical separation between different subdivisions of mediastinum.
False - artificially separated
The (X) divides mediastinum into the two main subdivisions:
X = Transverse thoracic plane (TPP)
Superior and inferior mediastinum
The TPP can be drawn between (X) and (Y).
X = sternal angle (anteriorly) Y = T4/T5 IV disc (posteriorly)
The (X) subdivision of mediastinum can be further divided into:
X = inferior
Anterior, middle, posterior parts
Superior mediastinum extends from (X) to (Y).
X = superior thoracic aperature Y = TTP
Primary lymphoid organ, (X), undergoes involution at (Y) stage of life and is gradually replaced by (Z).
X = thymus Y = puberty Z = fat
The great vessels in (X) mediastinum involve (inflow/outflow) tracts related to:
X = superior mediastinum
Both inflow and outflow to heart and lungs
In superior mediastinum, (X) drain into (Y), which drains into RA.
X = R/L brachiocephalic veins Y = superior vena cava
List key great vessels involved with outflow from heart to body.
List key great vessels involved in communication between heart and lungs.
Pulmonary arteries and veins
Great vessels involved in inflow/outflow to lungs are (superior/inferior/anterior/posterior) to those involved in inflow/outflow to body.
Anterior mediastinum resides between (X) anteriorly and (Y) posteriorly.
X = sternum Y = pericardium
Anterior mediastinum contains (X) structures.
X = very few (CT, fat, lymph, branches of internal thoracic vessels)
Middle mediastinum contains:
Heart, roots of great vessels, pericardium
Primary region/mediastinum through which structures pass through thorax.
List structures that pass through posterior mediastinum
- Veins (azygous, hemiazygous, accessory hemiazygous)
- Thoracic ducts/nodes
- Nerves (sympathetic trunk, splanchnic nerves, vagus nerve)
The very first branches off aorta are (X) and come off which surface of aorta?
X = Coronary (L/R)
List the paired branches off aorta.
- Bronchial arteries
- Intercostal and subcostal
- Superior phrenic
There are (X) pairs of intercostal arteries and (Y) pairs of subcostal arteries branching off (Z).
X = 11 Y = 1 Z = aorta
Bronchial arteries off (X) supply the (Y).
X = aorta Y = lungs
(Most/all) paired branches off aorta supply (X).
Most (except bronchial);
X = body wall
(X) arteries are paired branches off (Y) that supply upper surface of diaphragm.
X = superior phrenic Y = aorta
List the unpaired arteries off aorta.
Pericardial arteries supply:
Mediastinal arteries supply:
lymph nodes and posterior mediastinal tissue
List the nerves that run vertically through superior and inferior mediastina.
- Sympathetic trunk
Somatic innervation to diaphragm via:
Vagus nerve provides (X) innervation to (Y).
X = parasympathetic Y = viscera
(X) nerve becomes a plexus on (Y) side(s) of esophagus.
X = vagus Y = anterior and posterior
(X) nerve runs anterior to root of lung.
X = phrenic
(Y) nerve runs posterior to root of lung.
Y = vagus
Vagus nerve gives rise to (X) nerve.
X = recurrent laryngeal
(Foregut/midgut/handgun) has/have ventral and dorsal mesentery. Which only has/have (X) mesentery?
Midgut and hindgut only have
X = dorsal mesentery