Flashcards in (02/03/15) Streptococcus Pneumoniae, B. pertusis, Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium spp. (Daniels) Deck (38):
streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram ___ cocci that is non-_____, it has a ______, and is a _____ _____
what disease is the MAIN CAUSE of community-squired pneumonia worldwide?
during a catalase test for strep pneumonia, _____ susceptibility is what presumptively identifies is
how is transmission of strep pneumoniae done?
respiratory secretions / hand
where does strep pneumoniae enter the body?
what are the 6 risk factors for strep pneumoniae ?
-loss of consciousness
-high risk comorbidities (age, demographics...)
what are the 4 stages of spread of strep pneumoniae ?
-lungs fill with fluid
-early consolidation phase (neutrophils initiate inflammation)
-late consolidation phase (lungs get more solid)(more inflamed)
-recovery phase (macrophages phagocytose debris)
what are three other types of diseases caused by strep pneumoniae other than pneumonia?
-otitis (in children)
-pleural effusion (fluid outside lungs)
how do you diagnose strep pneumoniae ?
from gram stained sputum (agar plate)
what three things are used to treat strep pneumoniae
-penicillins and other B-lactams
at what age do you give children the vaccine for strep pneumoniae ?
2-15 months (4 doses)
at what age to you give adults the vaccine for strep pneumoniae
>65 years old
Legionella pneumophila is a gram _____ bacteria that is _____ (special conditions for cultivation in lab) and is an ____ _____
the encounter of Legionella pneumophila comes from _____ ____ and can withstands heat of up to _____
-contaminated water (not spread by humans)(NOT CONTAGIOUS)
-46 degrees celcius
how does Legionella pneumophila multiply and spread?
virulent strains multiply WITHIN autophagosomes
what are the three virulence factors of Legionella pneumophila?
-survival in macrophages
-has flagellin (motile)
for Legionella pneumophila treatment, antimicrobial drugs with good _____ _____ are useful, but _____ are not effective because they do not achieve therapeutic concentrations in the macrophages
Bordetella pertussis is a gram ____ rod, it is an ____ ____ , is the cause of ____ _____, and is very very highly ______
-contagious (90% attack rate)
Bordetella pertussis uses ____ as reservoirs and colonizes the _____
Bordetella pertussis applies ciliary adherence via what three things?
Bordetella pertussis uses a _____ to up regulate host cAMP and decrease _____ function
Bordetella _______ is similar to Bordetella pertussis however it does not use the ______
what is the first stage of Bordetella pertussis and what does it look like?
-runny nose of a cold (extremely contagious)
stage two of Bordetella pertussis is termed the ______ stage and is when the person _____ alot
laboratory diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis is tricky and uses what two things ?
-deep nasal swab
(diagnosable <3 weeks of cough onset)
what are the two types of vaccines used to treat Bordetella pertussis
-Tdap (adults and pregnant women)
disease that is known as "kennel cough" for dogs and very rarely affects human being (so its fucking stupid that we have to know it)
Mycobacterium spp is an ______ disease that can cause ____ and _____
Mycobacterium spp are _____ fast bacteria, they are non-_____ ____, and are ____ _____
what are the two modes of encounter for Mycobacterium spp
Mycobacterium spp form _____ in macrophages if there is a large enough inoculum.
what are the two tests to diagnose Mycobacterium spp?
-intradermal skin test
-acid-fast sputum exam
M. Leprae is a _______ disease that has similar immunology to tuberculosis. it prefers _____ ____ and is spread via the ______ route
-granulomatous (forms granulomas like Mycobacterium spp)
-lower temperatures (skin)
what are the two forms of M. Leprae?
what is the worst form of M. Leprae?
mild form of M. Leprae that may be self limiting and has very few bacteria present in lesions
severe form of M. Leprae that involves many organisms in the lesions