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Flashcards in (02) Cells & Tissues Deck (25):

What are the two types of response (cellular components)?

- What are the two types of tissues and what happens at each (plus give examples of each)?

The cells of the immune system originate in the _____, migrate through the _____ and ______, then ____ and _____ in peripheral tissues.

- innate and adaptive response

- Primary organs - where leukocytes are differentiated from progenitor cells (bone marrow, thymus, bursa, Peyer's patches)

- Secondary organs - sites where B and T cells induced to function (lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, Peyer's patches). 

- bone marrow, blood, lymphatic systems, mature, function


- All the immune cells start in the bone marrow from a _____. Depending on what signals they receive they will go down a _____ or a _____ pathway.

What kinds of cells can lymphoid progenitors become?

Which two of these cells are part of adaptive immune system?

What types of cells do myeloid cells become?

What drives differentiation down each pathway?


- stem cell, lymphoid, myeloid

- B cell, T cell, NK cell

- B and T cell

- granulocyte or monocyte

- cytokines


What type of cell finishes differentiation in thymus?

Where do most lymphocytes end up?

Where do myeloid cells go? Which two of these go into tissues?

Where do dendritic cells end up?

- T cell

- lymph nodes

- circulate through the blood, mast cells and macrophages

- in peripheal tissues



- What else are they called?

- How numerous?

- What are they responsible for?

- What do nuclei look like?

- Do they have cytoplasmic granules? If yes, how do they stain?

- Life span?

- Species difference (leukocyte %)

- Where found?

- PMNs (polymorphonuclear neurophil granuloctye)

- most numerous of innate immunity

- phagocytosis and digestion of bacteria and particles

- multi-lobed

- yes, with neutral dyes

- 2 days

- 20-30% in ruminants, 65-75% in ruminants

- in blood, recruited to tissues when needed (when there is inflammation)


(Macrophages) - fewer than neutrophils - but more important

- Are they the most important phagocytic cell? why?

- What are a couple of important activities (beyond what you would think)?

- _______ cells found in all bloods and tissues

- life span?

Role in ______ and _____.

What kind of receptors do they have?

What do they secrete?

- Present ______ to T cells

- yes, already out in tissue

- homeostasis, wound healing

- mononuclear

- months (in certain tissues)

- phagocytsosis, killing of bacteria

- Fc and complement

- pro-inflammatory cytokines (can regulate inflammation)

- processed antigens (B cells make antibodies, macrophages bind to these)



- Also a PMN, presnent in ____ numbers

- Where do they mature? Reside?

- Responsible for phagocytosis and killing of _____. Have _____ on surface (bind _____)

Nuclei are _____, Have cytoplasmic granules that stain with _____. What do granules contain?

Life span?

What's the most important thing they do?

Eosinophils are also ______. They make ______ and chemokines

- low

- spleen, tissues

- parasites, FC receptors, antibodies

- bi-lobed, eosin dye  --  phosphatase, peroxidase, toxic proteins

- 12 days

- anti-parasitic activity

- pro-inflammatory, cytokines (proteins that immune cells use to communicate with)



- Also a PMN, present in _____ numbers

- nucleus? have cytoplasmic granules that stain with ______ (_____) - what do granules contain?

Distributed in tissues?

- Play a role in killing _____  due to presence of _____

- low

- multi-lobes,  basophilic dyes (hematoxylin)

- inflammatory molecules (including vasoactive amines (histamine, serotonin)

- no

- parasites, FceRI


(Mast cells)

- nucleus?

- The only cell type of that has  ___ receptor that can bind ___ antibody (other types won't bind antibodies until they are bound by antigen)

- lifespan

- where?

- Play a role in killing parasites due to presence of ____

- Cytoplasmic granules contain ______ molecules, including ____ amines (_____)

- multi-lobed

- Fc, free 

- weeks (following distribution into tissue)

- tissues, connective tissue, body surfaces

- FceRI

- inflammatory, vasoactive, histamine


(Dendritic cells (NOT DENDRITES))

- Found in ___ numbers in tissues


- Migrate to draining ______ folliowing pathogen uptake (macrophages don't do this)

- How important are they in antigen presenting?

- Provide a link between ____ an ____ immunity

- low

- skin epithelia, intestinal, respiratory, reproductive mucosae

- lymph nodes (take pathogens to be dealt with by T and B cells in lymph nodes)

- they are the most important antigen presenting cell

- adaptive, immunity


Natural Killer (NK) cells (kill-self cells)

- ______ lineage

- Possess ____ antigen receptor than B or T cells

- do they require thymus for maturation?

- Account for ___% of blood lymphocytes? where are most? 

What do they kill? What allows them to do this?

What do they secrete? What does this do?

- lymphocytic

- different

- no

- 15%, in secondary lymph nodes

- tumor cells, virally-infected cells --  they have an Fc receptor

- interferons - release cytokines that get other cells to be anti-viral


Adaptive Immune Response

- Adaptive Immunity is ____ to a given molecule (_____)

- Adaptive immune response mediated by _____

- Have surface receptors for ______ on pathogens or particles

- Provide specific immunity to ______

- Provide _____ of specific antigens

- What are the two types of lymphocytes?

- B cells produce _____ (_______). What do antibodies bind? Antibodies interact with components of the ______ system.

- T cells ________ processed ____ on host cells (________). _______ cells activate or regulate activities of other cells. _________ cells kill host cells bearing a foreign antigen


- specific, epitope

- lymphocytes

- antigens

- antigens

- memory

- B cells and T cells

- antibodies (Humoral immunity)  --  innate immunity

- recognize, antigen, (Cell-Mediated Immunity). Helper T, Cytotoxic T



- Arise from lymphoid progenitor in _____ or _____.

- Leave bone marrow only ______

- B cells differentiate in ______ and ______

- T cells differentiate in the _____

- Small round cells that _____ be differentiated visually

- Use _______ to distinguish lymphocyte classes

- Mediate _______ (_____) immunity

- Found in _____ and _____ organs

- bone marrow, bursa

- partially mature

- bursa, bone marrow

- thymus

- cannot

- surface markers

- adaptive, (antigen specific)

- blood, lymphoid (primarily here)


(Clonal Selection)

- A single progenitor cell gives rise to a large number of ______, each with a different _____. Potentially self-reactive immature lymphoctyes are _____. 

Let's say you have 7 different b-cells in a lymph node, each with a slightly different antibody binding pocket (each bind different antigens) - when it encounters its specific antigen - first thing it does is start to _____. It will keep doing this until many are created. Some of these will become _____.

- lymphocytes, specificity, deleted

- proliferate, memory cells


- Receptors are encoded in the _____ of the organism - but in B and T cells - the genome rearranges _______ at the site where the receptors are _____. This generates cells of the same type, but with different _____.

- B and T cells are _______ specific and undergo _____ selection. This ensures that only cells with recetors against a ______ are activated. B cells start to ________ but require help from antigen-specific _____. T cells become activated to become ______ or _______.

Where does all of this happen?

What are sites where lymphocytes develop and/or contact and respond to specific antigens? They are essentially points of _____, _____ and ______ collection, and _______ responses

- These are tissues where ______ interact with ______ cells (stroma).

- Where does differentiation occur?

- Where does activation occur?

- Can tissues be both primary and secondary?

- genome, randomly, encoded, receptors

- antigen, clonal, foreign antigen, secrete antibodies, T cells, cytotoxic T cells, helper T cells

- Lymphoid tissues

- lymphoid organs, differentiation, antigen, immune cell, adaptive immune

- lymphocytes, non-lymphoid

- primary organ (where they become B or T)

- secondary organ (where they go to work)

- yes


(lymphoid tissues)

- Primary lymphoid organs are sites of ____ and _____ for lymphocytes (antigen-specifc cells); provide a network of ______ and ____ with which precursors interact to signal development. 

What are the three examples of primary lymphoid organs (plus say which cell type is at each)?

- production, differentiation, stromal fibroblasts, fat cells

- bone marrow or bursa of fabricius (avian) (b-cells), Thymus (t-cells), Peyer's patches (B-cells, in all mammals but especially so in ruminants)


(Bone marrow/ Bursa of Fabricius)

- site of early ____ development in ____ and _____ (T cells migrate to _____, B cell receptor arrangement occurs in _____)

- Bone marrow and bursa are also _____ organs

- If excessive blood cell production is demanded (injury), the ____ and ____ can serve as sites for lymphocyte prodcution.





What are the dark areas surroudning these cells of the Bursa of Fabricius? Why does it get less dense as it gets toward the center?


Q image thumb

- lymphocyte, mammals, birds, thymus, marrow/bursa

- secondary lymphoid

- liver, spleen

- immature b lymphocytes, this is because these cells are undergoing chromosomal rearrangement and therefore many of the cells don't make it (it is a dangerous process), 



- site of ____, also a site where mature ___ reside

- _____ cells support lymphopoeisis and myelopoises via both surface ____ and secretion of certain ______ (IL-7 for example - a cytokine)

- _____ produced in peripheral tissues can circulate to the bone marrow and influence proportion of cells made

- interaction of _____ with _____ determines how it differentiates

- hematopoeises, B cells

- stromal, ligands, cytokines/growth factors

- cytokines

- stem cells, stromal cells



- T cells leave the bone marrow and go to the ____ to complete differentiation 

Where is the thymus located? Consists of many lobules of loosely packed _____. Presentation of _____ only. Involutess (gets smaller) after _____. 

Thymus the same in all species?

Site in thymus of high cell concentation? low?

- thymus

- upper anterior thorax

- epithelial cells, self antigens, sexual maturity

- no, it varies alot

- cortex (outside), medulla


(Peyer's Patches - GALT) - primary lymphoid organs that line the gut

- structures located along the ____ within the lamina propria

- Contain large numbers of ______, mostly _____ cells

- Arranged in ______, with ___ and ___ cells surrounding them.

- Important for immune responses for ________

What are germinal centers?

- gastrointestinal tract

- lymphocyes, B

- follicles, B, T

- ingested antigens

- sites where B cells are rapidly dividing


(Lymphoid Tissues)

- Secondary lymphoid organs - sites where lymphocytes ______ and/or _____ and _____ to specific antigens, they are essentially _____ and _____ points.

What are the five lymphoid tissues?

- develop, contact, respond, collection, response

- Tonsils, Spleen, Lymph nodes, peyer's patches (both), bone marrow (both)



- A _____ lymphoid organ

- Compartmentalized structure in the ______, encased in a thick _____

- Red pulp contains _____.

- White pulp contains _____, mostly ___ cells but also ____ cells

- A big organ that serves as a spot where anything in the blood get _______

- Size amognst lymphoid organs?

- The major site of _____ immune response to _____ pathogens (filters out _____ red blood cells). Also a site where red blood cells are _____. 

In cat, calf, and sheep most particulates are filtered out in the _____

- secondary

- abdomen, capsule

- phagocytes

- lymphocytes, B, T

- filtered out

- Largest lymphoid organ

- adaptive, blood-borne, effete (old), stored (pig, dog, horse, human)

- lung


(LYMPH NODES) most important secondary lymphoid tissue

- Points of ______ for cells in the ____ and _____ systems

- collects _____ (_____) from tissues for return to the blood

- Contain _ and _ cells is _____ regions

- in a lymph node the paracortical area has mostly _____ cells, the outer cortex has mostly ___ cells, also areas of B cells proliferation called the _____

- To be simple, lymph nodes are places where ______ and _____ can get mixed with ___ and _____

- outer ___ and inner ____

- Lymph flows into ____ and leaves _____

- convergence, blood, lymph

- extracellular fluid (lymph)

- B, T, segregated

- T, B, germinal center

- peripheral cells, particulates, T cells, B cells

- cortex, medulla

- afferent lymphatics, efferent lymphatics


- once b-cells (they make the antibodies), once they get activated, the first thing they do proliferate. ______ allows for the production of better antibodies, they bind the antigen _____.

- somatic mutation, stronger


(Cell migration in to Lymph Nodes)

Lymphocytea dn dendritic cells enter lymph nodes by different routes. Lymphocytes enter from the _____. Get out of the blood (into lymph node itself ) at specialized sites called ______, to get into _____.

- Most dendritic cells (+ small numbers of lymphocytes), enter the lymph nodes through _____.

What are the specialized capillaries of lymphoid tissues (all secondary) where lymphocytes exchange from the blood? What do these lack? Most _____ in the lymph node enter via the blood.


- peripheral blood, high endothelial venules, lymph-node parenchyma

- afferent lymphatics

- High endothelial venules, tight junctions, T cells


- Lymphocytes and lymph return to blood via the _____

- thoracic duct