02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.01 Philosophical Assumptions and Determinism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.01 Philosophical Assumptions and Determinism Deck (16):
1

Philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis include

DETERMINISM (LAWFULNESS OF BEHAVIOR)-all events have causes and occur lawfully as a result of other events

EXPERIMENTATION-systematic manipulation of an IV, measurement of DV, and analysis of their relationship

EMPIRICISM-objective quantification, thorough description, precise quantification

PARSIMONY-when multiple explanations for a phenomenon are available, select the simplest

PHILOSOPHIC DOUBT-questioning what is regarded as fact; willingness to abandon beliefs in light of new data

REPLICATION-increased credibility of data results from duplication of the same study or similar studies

2

Which is the most parsimonious explanation?

Learning disabilities and personality disorders are explanatory fictions. Saying that something is maintained by attention points to a relation between two observable events. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 6; Michael, 1993, pp. 53-54)

A problem behavior is maintained by teacher attention.

3

Determinism means

Determinism means that events have causes. With respect to behavior, it means that it is under the control of natural events. Contrast this perspective with that of free will, which postulates that behavior can occur free of environmental and biological influences. In such a world, behavior would not be predictable or lawful. For an in depth discussion of free will and the myth of "autonomous man," see Beyond Freedom and Dignity by B.F. Skinner. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 5; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 176; Skinner, 1971)

4

Which of the following is most likely to have empirical support?

expert authority
reputable newspaper report
group consensus
science fair project ***

5

Elements of empiricism include all of the following EXCEPT

behavior being thoroughly described.
prioritization of target behaviors.
objective observation of behavior.
behavior being quantified.
Empiricism calls for behavior being objectively observed, thoroughly described, and quantified. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 3; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 5)

6

Philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis include

determinism (lawfulness of behavior), ethics, empiricism, parsimony.
experimentation, parsimony, empiricism, spontaneity of behavior.
determinism (lawfulness of behavior), experimentation, empiricism, parsimony. ***
empiricism, parsimony, experimentation, indeterminism.

PHILOSOPHIC DOUBT-questioning what is regarded as fact; willingness to abandon beliefs in light of new data

7

Which statement reflects a deterministic philosophy with respect to an adult who engages in aggression most mornings at breakfast.

"She gets it in her head that she's going to hit somebody, then does it."
"Oatmeal makes her sick, then she strikes out." ****
"She is not a morning person."
(all of the others)

8

A deterministic philosophy would maintain that variability does not support

the result of uncontrolled influences.

9

Lawfulness means

**that given perfect experimental control, you would always get the same results.
If given perfect experimental control, you would always get the exact same results. This lawfulness (or consistency) in nature supports the assumption that behavioral phenomena (like many other phenomena) are orderly and predictable. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 3; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 5)

10

An intervention is supported by peer-reviewed experimentation, but you don't think it will work because the outcomes are inconsistent with what operant conditioning would predict.

Accept the data supporting the intervention until contrary findings emerge. ****
Accept the data because it reflects a new approach.
Reject this research because operant conditioning is a well-established fact.
Reject this research on the grounds that it contradicts Skinner's writings.
A good scientist remains skeptical of scientific conclusions and must be willing to abandon long held beliefs if new data call for it. This is called philosophic doubt. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 6-7)

11

Despite several studies that support the utility of behavioral momentum, a researcher questions the existence of this phenomena. This researcher is

demonstrating philosophic doubt.

12

Experimentation

is one of the philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis.
Experimentation is one of the philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 4; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 5-6)

13

Which statement reflects a deterministic philosophy with respect to a child who exhibits unpredictable tantrums?

"We haven't yet identified the factors that control tantrums." ***
"The behavior is consistent with the DSM diagnosis of intermittent explosive disorder."
"Tantrums are the result of a personality disorder."
"Our data support that tantrums are a function of depressive moods."

A statement that reflects a deterministic philosophy is one that points to events that would precede and occasion the behavior. A deterministic statement does not necessarily have to identify a cause-only acknowledge that a cause must exist. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 5; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 176; Skinner, 1971)

14

Lawfulness is NOT supported by which of the following statements?

automobiles coming out of the same plant all working the same way
consistent results over numerous similar experiments
the spontaneous shattering of glass for no reason **
this computer working the same way each time you turn it on

Things don't fly off shelves without reason, defy gravity, or work in totally unpredictable ways. If a car breaks down, we rightfully attribute it to a mechanical problem, not the vagaries or capriciousness of nature. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 3; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 5)

15

Experimentation

involves arranging events to evaluate their influence on phenomena.

Experimentation is the systematic arranging of events so as to determine their influence on certain phenomena. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 4; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 5-6)

16

Philosophical assumptions of behavior analysis include

parsimony, determinism (lawfulness of behavior), philosophic doubt, experimentation, empiricism

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