02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.04 Describe Behavior and Private Events II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02 Definition and Characteristics / 02.04 Describe Behavior and Private Events II Deck (15):
1

Radio waves affect which nervous system?
interoceptive
exteroceptive
proprioceptive
(none of the others)

None

2

The two nervous systems associated with internal events are
proprioceptive and interoceptive.
exteroceptive and interoceptive.
proprioceptive and exteroceptive.
interoceptive and proprioactive.

proprioceptive and interoceptive.

INTEROCEPTIVE--carries stimulation from organs, related to internal economy
PROPRIOCEPTIVE--carries stimulation from joints, tendons, muscles, etc., necessary for posture and movement
EXTEROCEPTIVE--related to hearing, seeing, feeling (on the skin), smelling, tasting
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 27; Skinner, 1974, pp. 24-25)

3

"I can see in my head the beautiful snow covered mountains." Which is a behavioral account?
One's history of reinforcement occasions the response of imagining the snow covered peaks.
The author's description of the snow covered peaks reinforces the image they describe.
The author's description of snow covered mountains conjures up the image of snow covered mountains.
The author's description of snow covered mountains occasions the response of imagining snow covered mountains.


The author's description of snow covered mountains occasions the response of imagining snow covered mountains.

All we could say is that a stimulus occasions the response. That is, the description is followed by the behavior of seeing (the mountains). The description cannot reinforce-it is an antecedent, not a consequence. Similarly, "conjuring up" and "recalling from memory" imply that the image is "stored." We don't store images any more than we store jumps, startles, or any other behavior. (Skinner, 1974, pp. 91-95, 119-122)

4

Dizziness is a function of which nervous system?
(none of the others)
proprioceptive
interoceptive
exteroceptive

proprioceptive

5

Behaviorally speaking, thinking could be thought of as
verbal behavior that requires environmental support.
covert cognitive behavior.
overt behavior.
covert verbal behavior.

covert verbal behavior.

Thinking can best be thought of as covert verbal behavior and follows the same principles as overt operant behavior. (Skinner, 1974, pp. 31-31, 91-95, 119-122)

6

The two nervous systems associated with internal events are
interoceptive and proprioactive.
interoceptive and proprioceptive.
exteroceptive and interoceptive.
proprioceptive and exteroceptive.

interoceptive and proprioceptive.

7

Behaviorally speaking, imagining an object that you have seen before is best described as
seeing in the absence of the thing seen.
seeing a copy.
recalling the thing from memory.
remembering what is stored.

seeing in the absence of the thing seen.

Imagining or seeing in the absence of the thing seen is a simple way of describing this phenomena. "Recall" is particularly problematic because it implies that something is being stored and that a copy is being re-called from memory. Seeing is a response. We don't store images any more than we store jumps, startles, or any other behavior. (Skinner, 1974, pp. 91-95, 119-122)

8

The inability to smell is a function of which nervous system?
proprioceptive
exteroceptive
interoceptive
olfactoroceptive

exteroceptive

9

After a great vacation to the shore, you find yourself imagining you are there. Which is the best behavioral description?
The memory occasions the reinforcing images.
Seeing the shore is elicited by the history of reinforcement.
Imagining the shore has reinforcing value.
Recalling the shore has reinforcing value.

Imagining the shore has reinforcing value.

Seeing in the absence of the thing seen, particularly without any stimuli to occasion the behavior, can usually be attributed the reinforcing value of the thing seen. "Recall" is a cognitive term. It is particularly problematic because it implies that something is stored and re-called from memory. Also, "elicited" implies a respondent behavior. (Skinner, 1974, pp. 91-95, 119-122)

10

A feeling of pressure inside the head is a function of which nervous system?
(none of the others)
exteroceptive
proprioceptive
interoceptive

introceptive

11

Behaviorally speaking, "knowing a fact" is
processing a particular response given a particular stimulus.
calling up a particular memory given a particular stimulus.
exhibiting a particular response given a particular stimulus.
exhibiting a response given a stimulus that occasions the recall.

exhibiting a particular response given a particular stimulus.

12

The inability to move is a function of which nervous system?
exteroceptive
propriomotor
proprioceptive
interoceptive

proprioceptive

13

Hunger pangs are a function of which nervous system?
interopangs
interoceptive
proprioceptive
exteroceptive

interoceptive

14

Behaviorally speaking, multi-step problem solving in one's head could be translated as
chains of covert behavior, whereby responses become SDs and EOs for subsequent responses.
an external stimulus occasions a covert response, followed by public response, followed by a covert response, etc.
chains of covert behavior, whereby reinforcers become SDs for subsequent reinforcers.
response generalization from overt behavior to covert behavior.

chains of covert behavior, whereby responses become SDs and EOs for subsequent responses.


A covert verbal response could serve as an SD or EO for the next response, and so on. For example, you pass a party store (SD) which occasions brainstorming about what to get a friend for his birthday (covert response). This thought (SD) occasions thinking about flowers (reinforcement for brainstorming). It also increases the value of finding a florist (EO) and occasions imagining the road to turn down where a florist has been seen in the past (reinforcement); and so on. (Michael, 1993, pp. 57-59; Skinner, 1957)

15

Behaviorally speaking, seeing beautiful snow covered mountains in one's head could be
occasioned by reading a description of snow covered mountains.
the result of recalling them from memory.
the result of knowing what the mountains look like and being reminded.
reinforced by reading a description of snow covered mountains.

The description occasions the response.

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