02 Lumbar Spine 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 02 Lumbar Spine 2 Deck (33):
1

cauda equina

- spinal cord terminates at T12-L1
- cauda equina is below L1

2

below L1, any nerve injury is

peripheral

3

direction of lumbar disc herniations

almost always posterolateral

4

herniation through the PLL (directly posterior) is called _______ and can impact _________

- central herniation
- impacts cauda equina

5

sacralization

- 5th lumbar vertebrae takes on characteristics of the sacrum
- may be partially or completely fused with it
- seen as 4 lumbar vertebrae

6

lumbarization

- superior aspect of the sacrum assumes characteristics of the 5th lumbar vertebrae
- seen as 6 lumbar vertebrae

7

The angle of the upper surface of the sacrum with the horizontal increases during

- lordosis
- anterior tilt

8

What does anterior tilt and lordosis do to the spine?

- increases vertical shear force between vertebrae
- elongates and weakens ligaments and discs

9

T12-L1 apophyseal joint

thoracolumbar junction

10

L5-S1 apophyseal joint

lumbosacral junction

11

segmental instability

- shear stress can lead to segmental instability
- translation of the vertebral body

12

spondylolysis is a disruption of

disruption of the pars interarticularis without anterior advancement of the vertebral body

13

spondylolisthesis is a disruption of

pars interarticularis with anterior advancement of the vertebral body

14

spondylolisthesis

- weakness can lead to a forward slide of a superior lumbar vertebra over the adjacent one
- can also result from a congenital vertebral deficit that presents when excessive exercise is done, e.g., gymnasts

15

What's in the vertebral canal?

- spinal cord
- nerve roots
- meninges

16

The dural sac containing the spinal cord, nerve roots, and meninges is called _________

thecal sac

17

Where do segmental nerves exit?

all but cervical exit below the vertebra of the same number

18

The spinal cord exits at level _______ at the ________

- L1-L2
- conus medullaris

19

What is below the conus medullaris?

cauda equina

20

What does the cauda equina consist of?

lumbar and sacral dorsal and ventral roots

21

In the cervical spine herniation of the C4-5 disc impinges on the

C5 nerve

22

Why do you get a L5 nerve compression with L4-5 herniation?

because of the height of the disc

23

In the lumbar spine, where do the nerves emerge?

- superior to the discs
- below the vertebrae of the same number

24

Why do the nerves descend from the spinal segment of origin to the vertebral level of exit?

because of the relative shortness of the spinal cord

25

herniation of L4-L5 vertebra

- herniation occurs inferior to L4 nerve, sparing it (because foramina are large and superior to body)
- get compression of the L5 nerve instead

26

intrinsic back muscles supplied by primary dorsal rami

erector spinae

27

order of erector spinae medial to lateral

- spinalis
- longissimus
- iliocostalis

28

important muscles deep to erector spinae

- multifidus
- quadratus lumborum

29

anterior pelvic tilt occurs when _______________ through action of which muscles?

- the spine is extended
- lumbar extensors and hip flexors

30

posterior pelvic tilt occurs when ____________ through action of which muscles?

- the spine is flexed (lordosis eliminated)
- abdominal muscles, hip extensors

31

nutation

- anterior sacral tilt
- posterior iliac tilt

**corresponds with lumbar flexion/posterior pelvic tilt**

32

counternutation

- posterior sacral tilt
- anterior iliac tilt

**corresponds with lumbar extension/anterior pelvic tilt**

33

during trunk rotation, the TRA does what?

- trunk stabilization
- increases intra-abdominal pressure as it contracts