Flashcards in 021914 3 Neuroembryology 1 Deck (43):
Neural tube (CNS motor neurons and preganglionic ANS), neural crest (PNS and postganglionic ANS), epithelial component of skin (glands) are derived from ecto/endo/mesoderm?
pharynx, larynx, trachea, esophagus, pharyngotympanic tube
thymus, parathyroid, tonsil, thyroid, mucosal
are derived from ecto/endo/mesoderm?
notochord (nucleus pulposus)
somites that form:
sclerotome (bone and cartilage)
are derived from ecto/endo/mesoderm?
Neural crest cells give rise to "head mesenchyme" which consists of?
blood, bone, connective tissue, cartilage, lymphatics
How is the auricle formed?
Mesenchymal condensations associated with the 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches
What forms the external auditory canal?
1st pharyngeal cleft
What forms the pharyngotympanic tube and the middle ear cavity?
1st pharyngeal pouch
The _________ is lined on the outside by ectoderm, inside by endoderm and has mesoderm in between.
Neural crest cells proliferate and migrate around the sides of the developing pharynx forming what?
How is smooth skin over the neck formed?
2nd pharyngeal arch overgrows the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal clefts
What is the cervical sinus? How does it form?
2nd, 3rd, 4th pharyngeal grooves merge to form cervical sinus
Where would a branchial cyst be located in the neck? Is there a surface landmark that can be used to describe its location?
anterior border of sternocleidomastoid
1st arch gives rise to ___ which is innervated by ___.
muscles of mastication, CN 5
2nd arch gives rise to ___ which is innervated by ___
muscles of facial expression, CN 7
3rd arch gives rise to ____ which is innervated by ___.
stylopharyngeus muscle, CN 9
4th arch gives rise to ____ which is innervated by ____.
laryngeal muscles, CN 10
1st arch cartilage gives rise to:
2nd arch cartilage gives rise to
superior half of hyoid body
3rd arch cartilage gives rise to:
inferior half of hyoid body
greater horn of hyoid
What skeletal structures in the middle ear cavity are derived from these 1, 2, and 3 arch cartilages?
Where is a thyroglossal duct cyst located?
anterior to hyoid bone
Derivatives of 1st pharyngeal pouch.
PM me 1st
Derivatives of 2nd pharyngeal pouch.
Check the tonsils 2nd.
Derivatives of 3rd pharyngeal pouch.
3rd place is IT.
Derivatives of 4th pharyngeal pouch.
4th place? I'll su you.
ultimobranchial body (C cells of thyroid gland)
Which parts of which arch form the upper and lower jaw?
maxillary and mandibular portions of 1st pharyngeal arch
What parts of the face does the frontonasal process form?
entire face except jaw
The medial nasal swellings fuse to form what part of the developing face?
Where is the nasolacrimal groove located in the developing face? What two structures form its boundaries?
cleft between lateral nasal swelling and maxillary part of 1st arch
An _______ results from a failure of fusion between the lateral nasal swelling and the maxillary process of the 1st arch.
oblique facial cleft
Which three structures fuse to form the hard palate?
primary palate, secondary palate, lateral palatine processes
Does the intermaxillary segment contribute to the hard palate?
yes, it becomes the primary palate
How does a cleft lip form?
failure of medial nasal and maxillary prominences to fuse
How does a cleft palate form?
failure of palatine processes to fuse
Tongue muscles develop from what?
What structures fuse to form the anterior two-thirds of the tongue? Which pharyngeal arch does this arise from?
lateral lingual swellings
What structures fuse to form the posterior one-third of the tongue? Which pharyngeal arch does this arise from?
caudal lingual swellings
3rd and 4th
What develops from the second pharyngeal arch in the developing tongue?
How many somites are formed during normal development?
Compare the number of somites formed in each body region with the number of vertebrae in each region of the adult vertebral column.
Describe the developmental event that causes spinal nerves to lie between vertebrae in the adult.
segmented somites form their own sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome and receive a segmented nerve innervation.
What normal embryological process has been interrupted to cause the formation of a hemivertebrae?
unilateral defects in sclerotome formation causes congenital scoliosis