021914 3 Neuroembryology 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 021914 3 Neuroembryology 1 Deck (43):
1

Neural tube (CNS motor neurons and preganglionic ANS), neural crest (PNS and postganglionic ANS), epithelial component of skin (glands) are derived from ecto/endo/mesoderm?

ectoderm

2

epithelial lining
pharynx, larynx, trachea, esophagus, pharyngotympanic tube
pharyngeal pouches
thymus, parathyroid, tonsil, thyroid, mucosal
are derived from ecto/endo/mesoderm?

endoderm

3

notochord (nucleus pulposus)
somites that form:
sclerotome (bone and cartilage)
dermatome (dermis)
myotome (muscles)
are derived from ecto/endo/mesoderm?

mesoderm

4

Neural crest cells give rise to "head mesenchyme" which consists of?

BBCCL
blood, bone, connective tissue, cartilage, lymphatics

5

How is the auricle formed?

Mesenchymal condensations associated with the 1st and 2nd pharyngeal arches

6

What forms the external auditory canal?

1st pharyngeal cleft

7

What forms the pharyngotympanic tube and the middle ear cavity?

1st pharyngeal pouch

8

The _________ is lined on the outside by ectoderm, inside by endoderm and has mesoderm in between.

tympanic membrane

9

Neural crest cells proliferate and migrate around the sides of the developing pharynx forming what?

pharyngeal arches

10

How is smooth skin over the neck formed?

2nd pharyngeal arch overgrows the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal clefts

11

What is the cervical sinus? How does it form?

2nd, 3rd, 4th pharyngeal grooves merge to form cervical sinus

12

Where would a branchial cyst be located in the neck? Is there a surface landmark that can be used to describe its location?

anterior border of sternocleidomastoid

13

1st arch gives rise to ___ which is innervated by ___.

muscles of mastication, CN 5

14

2nd arch gives rise to ___ which is innervated by ___

muscles of facial expression, CN 7

15

3rd arch gives rise to ____ which is innervated by ___.

stylopharyngeus muscle, CN 9

16

4th arch gives rise to ____ which is innervated by ____.

laryngeal muscles, CN 10

17

1st arch cartilage gives rise to:

malleus
incus

18

2nd arch cartilage gives rise to

stapes
styloid process
superior half of hyoid body

19

3rd arch cartilage gives rise to:

inferior half of hyoid body
greater horn of hyoid

20

What skeletal structures in the middle ear cavity are derived from these 1, 2, and 3 arch cartilages?

malleus
incus
stapes

21

Where is a thyroglossal duct cyst located?

anterior to hyoid bone

22

Derivatives of 1st pharyngeal pouch.

PM me 1st

pharyngotympanic tube
middle ear

23

Derivatives of 2nd pharyngeal pouch.

Check the tonsils 2nd.

palatine tonsil

24

Derivatives of 3rd pharyngeal pouch.

3rd place is IT.

inferior parathyroid
thymus

25

Derivatives of 4th pharyngeal pouch.

4th place? I'll su you.

superior parathyroid
ultimobranchial body (C cells of thyroid gland)

26

Which parts of which arch form the upper and lower jaw?

maxillary and mandibular portions of 1st pharyngeal arch

27

What parts of the face does the frontonasal process form?

entire face except jaw

28

The medial nasal swellings fuse to form what part of the developing face?

intermaxillary segment

29

Where is the nasolacrimal groove located in the developing face? What two structures form its boundaries?

cleft between lateral nasal swelling and maxillary part of 1st arch

30

An _______ results from a failure of fusion between the lateral nasal swelling and the maxillary process of the 1st arch.

oblique facial cleft

31

Which three structures fuse to form the hard palate?

primary palate, secondary palate, lateral palatine processes

32

Does the intermaxillary segment contribute to the hard palate?

yes, it becomes the primary palate

33

How does a cleft lip form?

failure of medial nasal and maxillary prominences to fuse

34

How does a cleft palate form?

failure of palatine processes to fuse

35

Tongue muscles develop from what?

occipital myotomes

36

What structures fuse to form the anterior two-thirds of the tongue? Which pharyngeal arch does this arise from?

lateral lingual swellings
1st

37

What structures fuse to form the posterior one-third of the tongue? Which pharyngeal arch does this arise from?

caudal lingual swellings
3rd and 4th

38

What develops from the second pharyngeal arch in the developing tongue?

taste buds

39

How many somites are formed during normal development?

36-38

40

Compare the number of somites formed in each body region with the number of vertebrae in each region of the adult vertebral column.

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral
3-5 coccygeal

41

Describe the developmental event that causes spinal nerves to lie between vertebrae in the adult.

segmented somites form their own sclerotome, myotome, and dermatome and receive a segmented nerve innervation.

42

What normal embryological process has been interrupted to cause the formation of a hemivertebrae?

sclerotome formation
unilateral defects in sclerotome formation causes congenital scoliosis

43

What occurs if you do not have proper resegmentation of the developing vertebrae?

fused vertebra which can cause scoliosis