022514 1 Myelin Disorders SDL Flashcards Preview

B&B Exam 1 > 022514 1 Myelin Disorders SDL > Flashcards

Flashcards in 022514 1 Myelin Disorders SDL Deck (11):

What is multiple sclerosis? Cause?

demyelination due to autoimmune destruction by CD4 and CD8 T cells and macrophages. Occurs randomly throughout time and space, usually in females.


Multiple sclerosis lab findings?

increased immunoglobulins in CSF (oligoclonal bands) and plaques


What is progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)?

demyelination caused by JC virus which infects and kills oligodendrocytes during periods of immunosuppression


Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) lab findings?

ring enhancing lesions on MRI
viral inclusions in oligodendrocytes


What is acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)? Are symptoms generalized or focal/localizing?

demyelination occuring 1-2 weeks after infection characterized by rapid progression of headache, lethargy, and coma. Symptoms are generalized.


What is acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalomyelitis?

demyelination presenting similarly to ADEM, but usually occurs after UTI and is much more severe.


What is neuromyelitis optica (NMO) (devic disease)? What is diagnostic?

demyelination of optic nerve and spinal cord
autoantibodies against aquaporin receptors


What is central pontine myelinolysis? In what situations does it occur?

demyelination of the central pons due to: rapid correction of hyponatremia, alcoholism, or severe electrolyte disturbances


What is marchiafava-bignami?

demyelination of corpus callosum


metachromatic leukodystrophy
krabbe disease
canavan disease
pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease
vanishing white matter disease
alexander disease

What type of diseases are these?



What is the difference between demyelination and dysmyelination?

demyelination: normal myelin is lost, typically due to autoimmunity. dysmyelination: myelin is not formed properly or is degraded faster than it is made, typically due to a genetic defect