03 Diencephalon Flashcards Preview

11 Neurology > 03 Diencephalon > Flashcards

Flashcards in 03 Diencephalon Deck (33):
1

Processes sensory inputs
Regulates sleep and consciousness
Provides sensory feedback to the motor system, basal ganglia and cerebellum

Thalamus

2

Thalamus lies underneath the ____ and above the ____

Corpus callosum
Brain stem

3

Thalamus is subdivided by _____

Internal medullary lamina

4

4 major nuclei subdivisions

Anterior region
Lateral region
Medial region
Posterior region

5

One nucleus
Probably has to do with memory and emotions
Has interconnections with the cingulate and frontal cortices

Anterior nucleus

6

Anterior nucleus receives major input from ____ and ___

Mammillary nuclei
Presubiculum

7

Large thalamic nucleus
Has 3 subdivisions
Implicated in memory

Medial nucleus

8

Medial nucleus receives inputs from

Portions of the basal ganglia
Amygdala
Midbrain

9

Subserve pain and touch then direct these to the parietal lobe

Ventral nuclei

10

Receives inputs from the substantia nigra and the globus pallidus
Sends neuronal inputs to the supplementary motor cortex
Involved in planning movements, initiates wanted movements and inhibits unwanted movements

Ventral anterior nucleus

11

Receives inputs from the substantia nigra, globus pallidus and cerebellum
Sends neuronal innputs to the primary motor cortex
Involved in the learning of movements

Ventral lateral nucleus

12

Sensory part of the ventral nucleus

Ventral posterior nucleus

13

Projects to the postcentral gyrus
Receives impulses from the solitary tract and trigeminal nerve via the trigeminal lemniscus and trigeminothalamic tract
Receives information from the face

Ventral posteromedial nucleus

14

Somatosensory relay nucleus for the body
Receives information from the limbs

Ventral posterolateral nucleus

15

Mediates the special senses (auditory and visual)
Located postero-lateral to the brainstem

Geniculate bodies

16

Auditory thalamus
Relays auditory impulses from the inferior colliculus to the auditory cortex
Controls hearing

Medial geniculate nucleus

17

Processes visual inputs from the retina via the optic nerve
Sends projections to the primary visual cortex via the optic radiations
Controls visions

Lateral geniculate nucleus

18

Most posterior nucleus of the thalamus

Posterior nucleus

19

4 subnuclei of posterior nucleus

Lateral
Inferior
Oral
Medial

20

Visual cortical association areas

Lateral
Inferior

21

Somatosensory cortical association areas

Oral

22

Cingulate, posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices

Medial

23

Epiphysis
Reddish-gray 5-8 mm, dorsal to the superior colliculus

Pineal gland

24

Pineal gland produces

Melatonin

25

Previously thought to be the stalk of the pineal gland
Separate mass of grey matter caudal and dorsal to the thalamus

Habenula

26

Horizontal ridge on medial surface of the thalamus

Stria medullaris

27

Has implications on the coordination with the meninges
Inferior to the thalamus, lateral to the hypothalamus and medial to cerebral peduncle and internal capsule

Subthalamus

28

Lies beneath the thalamus and dorsolateral to the hypothalamus
Part of the basal ganglia proper functionally but part of the diencephalon anatomically

Subthalamic nucleus of Luys

29

Small mass of gray matter intervening between the subthalamic nucleus and the thalamus

Zona incerta

30

Shell of cells that intervenes between the external medullary lamina and the internal capsule

Reticular nucleus of the thalamus

31

Situated between the thalamus above, the medial border of the internal capsule laterally, the subthalamic nucleus of Luys below and the posterior thalamic nuclei medially

Fields of Forel

32

Consists primarily of gray matter formed into matrix of nuclei located in the middle of the base of the grain
Encapsulates the ventral portion of the third ventricle
Located below the thalamus on each side of the third ventricle and is continuous across its floor

Hypothalamus

33

Pair of small round bodies on the ventral surface of the brain

Mammillary bodies