03 Final Exam Study Guide 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Final Exam Study Guide 3 Deck (44):
1

Which muscles are involved in tarsal tunnel syndrome?

Tom, Dick, and Harry

2

Who are Tom, Dick, and Harry?

- Tibialis posterior
- extensor Digitorum
- extensor Hallucis longus

3

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is compression of which nerve?

tibial n

4

With tarsal tunnel syndrome, will the gastrocs be weakened?

NOPE

5

major structures in the lateral compartment of the leg

- 2 muscles: peroneus longus and brevis
- posterior tibial artery
- common fibular n. splits to form superficial and deep peroneal n.

6

major structures in the anterior compartment of the leg

- deep fibular n.
- dorsiflexors, supinators, toe extensors
- tibialis anterior

7

Which compartment is most commonly involved in overuse syndrome?

anterior

8

What are shin splints?

periosteal fractures

9

Two types of shin splings

- anterior
- posterior

10

Why are "shin splints" a misnomer?

- Not really fracture or splintering of bones
- overstressing the structure

11

Which muscle is associated with anterior shin splints?

anterior tibialis

12

Which muscle is associated with posterior shin splints?

tibialis posterior

13

Which nerve supplies sensory innervation to the foot?

sural n.

14

The sural n. is a branch of which nerve?

peroneal n.

15

rearfoot

talus and calcaneus

16

midfoot

tarsals (5)

17

forefoot

- rays (metatarsals)
- phalanges

18

What is the subtalar joint?

between talus and calcaneus

19

Which tarsal is most susceptible to AVN?

navicular

20

Where does the spring ligament run?

sustentaculum tali to navicular

21

styloid process

at base of 5th metatarasl

22

joint between calcaneus and talus

- no solid piece of hyaline cartilage
- there's a lot of facets
- easy for things to be disconnected

23

Why is it easy for surfaces to become disconnected between the talus and calcaneus?

surfaces are irregular and undulating

24

functional dorsiflexion

10˚

25

normal dorsiflexion

15-20˚

26

gait cycle: WB vs. NWB %

60% is WB
40% is NWB

27

Is 10˚ dorsiflexion enough for sprinting?

no, need more than 10˚

28

arches of the feet

- medial longitudinal arch
- transverse arch

29

main arch of the foot

medial longitudinal arch

30

Where is the transverse arch?

midtarsal joint

31

What happens to the medial arch during WB?

compresses

32

When is the arch at max compression during gait cycle?

right before the heel leaves the ground

33

What causes pain associated with plantar fasciitis?

- abnormal stress on calcaneus
- fascia can't be inflamed

34

bunion

exostosis (bone spur) on distal end of first metatarsal

35

What happens to the toe when there's a bunion?

deviation of the toe laterally away from the bunion

36

medial and lateral structures of the toe when there's a bunion

- medial: overstretched
- lateral: shortened

37

What happens to the EHL when there's a bunion?

- no longer effective as an extensor
- get a bowstringing effect

38

How do they fix a bunion?

- shave off the bunion
- realign the ray by performing a wedge osteotomy
- pin the bone in place
- sew all soft tissue to where it's tight again

39

What is the most important motion for rehab?

extension!
***knee***
***great toe***

40

Why is extension of the great toe so important?

- if you can't extend the great toe, you walk with a limp
- knee will flex earlier in the gait cycle when you push off

41

What can happen if your knee flexes earlier in the gait cycle?

can cause PF pain

42

Aside from great toe extension, what is another factor that could make the knee flex earlier in the gait cycle?

limited dorsiflexion

43

Which muscles act to limit anterior translation of the knee?

- gastrocs
- soleus

44

All joints distal to the talocrural joint are _____ until you get to the ______

- planar
- MTP joints