03 Knee 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Knee 1 Deck (42):
1

Where is the adductor tubercle in relation to the epicondyles of the femur?

superior to medial epicondyle

2

Where are the sites of attachment for the patellar tendon?

tibial tuberosity

3

What is the pes anserine?

site of attachment for:

- sartorius
- gracilis
- semitendinosus

4

The fibular head is the site of attachment fo:

- biceps femoris
- LCL

5

What lies immediately posterior to the fibular head?

common peroneal (fibular) nerve

6

What is significant about the location of the common peroneal (fibular) nerve?

very vulnerable to injury

7

What type of joint is the proximal tibiofibular joint?

- synovial joint
- planar
- only moves slightly

8

What does the posterior surface of the patella articulate with?

femur

9

What does the superior surface of the patella articulate with?

quadriceps tendon

10

What does the inferior surface of the patella articulate with?

patellar tendon (ligament), which attaches to the tibial tuberosity

11

What would happen if we didn't have a patella?

- absence of the patella reduces the moment arm for the quads
- reduces their effectiveness

12

Which forces on the patella are stronger? Medial or lateral?

lateral directed forces tend to overpower medial forces

13

Patellofemoral compression (increases/decreases) with knee flexion

increases

14

Patellofemoral compression is minimal in this position

standing

15

What activities may be painful with patellofemoral compression?

squats and climbing stairs

16

Where do the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments attach on the tibia?

sites on the intercondylar area of the tibia

intercondylar notch of the femur

17

What are the menisci and what do they do?

- C-shaped partial discs (lateral is usually almost a complete circle)
- add depth to the medial and lateral articular surfaces of the tibia

18

Are the menisci mobile?

They are attached to the tibia, but can move on it

19

another name for the knee

genu

20

The tibial "shelf" is usually referred to as the

tibial plateau

21

Does the patella communicate with the tibia?

no

22

instantaneous axis of rotation means that

as the leg moves, the axis of rotation changes

**different at every instant**

23

At what point to compressive forces on the patella rapidly increase?

90˚ and beyond

24

What structure is the meniscus comparable to in the hip?

labrum

25

fat pad

- under the patella
- highly vascularized and innervated » pain generator

26

If a meniscectomy is performed, what happens to the knee?

- lose stability
- knee will wear out faster than it should
- eliminated protective structure for hyaline cartilage, so you'll get more OA changes

27

The quadriceps are innervated by this nerve

branches of the femoral nerve

28

Where is the femoral nerve?

- lateral to the femoral artery
- in the femoral triangle
- DOES NOT GO PAST THE KNEE!

29

Where do the muscular branches arise?

proximal third of the thigh

30

What are the 3 hamstring muscles?

- biceps femoris
- semimembranosus
- semitendinosus

31

What are the hamstrings innervated by?

tibial branch of the sciatic nerve

32

arterial supply to the leg

- femoral artery passes through the adductor hiatus
- becomes the popliteal artery

33

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

L1-L2

hip flexion

34

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

L3-L4

knee extension

35

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

L4-L5

ankle dorsiflexion

36

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

L5-S2

- hip extension
- knee flexion

37

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

S1-2

ankle plantarflexion

38

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

patellar tendon reflex

L4

39

spinal cord segments and lower limb movements

calcaneal tendon reflex

S1

40

screw home mechanism

In the last 20-30˚ of extension, the tibia externally rotates 10˚

41

differentiating the semitendinosus and semimembranosus

semitendinosus has a longer tendon

42

What is the popliteal space?

the posterior aspect of the knee