03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.03 Positive, Negative, Conditioned, and Unconditioned Reinforcement Flashcards Preview

Test Cards > 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.03 Positive, Negative, Conditioned, and Unconditioned Reinforcement > Flashcards

Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.03 Positive, Negative, Conditioned, and Unconditioned Reinforcement Deck (24):
1

Positive punishment occurs when
a stimulus removed contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.
data indicate that a negative reinforcement procedure is effective.
a positive stimulus is removed contingent upon behavior.
a stimulus presented contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.

a stimulus presented contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.

2

Which decreases behavior?
negative punishment
positive punishment
type I punishment
(all of the others)

all others

3

Which is a primary reinforcer?
art
reading
processed foods
(all of the others)

processed foods

4

Reinforcers that have to be learned are
unconditioned reinforcers.
conditioned reinforcers.
positive reinforcers.
primary reinforcers.

conditioned reinforcers.

5

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are
exemplified by subway token systems whereby commuters purchase rides with tokens.
the same as secondary reinforcers.
exemplified by classroom token systems whereby students purchase from a "store."
(all of the others)

exemplified by classroom token systems whereby students purchase from a "store."


Generalized reinforcers are associated with a variety of reinforcers, such as a token or point system in which tokens could be exchanged for a variety of things. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003 p. 298; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 270)

6

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are
backed up by primary reinforcers only.
exemplified by money.
the same as unconditioned reinforcers.
(all of the others)

exemplified by money.

can be backup by primary and secondary reinforcers

7

Punishment always involves
the removal of a favored stimulus.
a decrease in the frequency of behavior or the presentation of a disliked stimulus.
a decrease in the frequency of behavior contingent upon a stimulus change.
(all of the others)

a decrease in the frequency of behavior contingent upon a stimulus change.

8

Food is a/an
learned reinforcer.
automatic reinforcer.
unlearned reinforcer.
conditioned reinforcer.

unlearned reinforcer.

9

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are
the same as unconditioned reinforcers.
backed up by primary reinforcers only.
exemplified by money.
(all of the others)

exemplified by money.

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are those that have been associated with various behaviors or access to backup reinforcers, which may be either primary or secondary reinforcers. Examples include money, tokens, points, smiles, and praise. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 298; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 270)

10

Sex is a/an
primary reinforcer.
unconditioned reinforcer.
unlearned reinforcer.
(all of the others)

all others

11

Unconditioned reinforcer is synonymous with
unlearned reinforcer and positive reinforcer.
secondary reinforcer and unlearned reinforcer.
primary reinforcer and unlearned reinforcer.
primary reinforcer and positive reinforcer.


primary reinforcer and unlearned reinforcer.

unconditioned reinforcer = unlearned reinforcer = primary reinforcer
conditioned reinforcer = learned reinforcer = secondary reinforcer
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 26; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 38-39)

12

Which best exemplifies an unconditioned reinforcer?
skin temperature change from 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 Celsius) to 70 degrees Fahrenhiet (21 Celsius)
a warm climate
skin temperature change from 75 degrees (24 Celsius) to 95 degrees (35 Celsius)
imagining being warm when you are cold

skin temperature change from 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 Celsius) to 70 degrees Fahrenhiet (21 Celsius)

Unconditioned, unlearned, or primary reinforcers are those that one is born with and are important to the survival of the organism. We are born with the capacity to be reinforced by behaviors that result in our skin temperature to approach approximately 72 degrees. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 290-298; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 39-40)

13

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are
more effective than primary reinforcers.
less effective than primary reinforcers.
less susceptible to satiation.
more susceptible to satiation.

less susceptible to satiation.

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are less vulnerable to satiation because they can be exchanged for a wide variety of reinforcers. Moreover, they are not necessarily more or less powerful than primary reinforcers. Are you more likely to do a homework assignment for a ham sandwich (primary reinforcer) or $100 (secondary reinforcer)? Unless you are starving, you will probably choose the latter. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, p. 298)

14

Generalized reinforcers
sometimes require a backup reinforcer.
are likely to be reinforcing at any time.
enable the same reinforcement to be given to individuals with different preferences.
(all of the others)

all others

Money is an example of a generalized reinforcer. People will use it to buy a variety of things. And because it could buy so many things, it is reinforcing for nearly everyone. Moreover, it maintains its value because it could be saved to purchase backup reinforcers at a later date. Some generalized reinforcers (e.g., praise) do not require backup reinforcement. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 298-309; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 270)

15

Which is a primary reinforcer?
the need to use the bathroom upon seeing flowing water
the sensation of relieving the bladder
opportunity to use the bathroom
(all of the others)

the sensation of relieving the bladder

16

Generalized conditioned reinforcers are
exemplified by money.
backed up by primary or secondary reinforcers.
the same as generalized reinforcers.
(all of the others)

all others

17

Conditioned reinforcer is synonymous with
secondary reinforcer and unlearned reinforcer.
primary reinforcer and unlearned reinforcer.
learned reinforcer and secondary reinforcer.
primary reinforcer and positive reinforcer.

learned reinforcer and secondary reinforcer.

18

Negative punishment occurs when
data indicate that a negative reinforcement procedure is effective.
a negative stimulus is removed contingent upon behavior.
a stimulus removed contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.
a stimulus presented contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.

a stimulus removed contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.

19

A parent starts giving a child money every time he takes out the garbage. Taking out the garbage decreases. Giving the money represents
positive punishment.
positive reinforcement.
negative punishment.
negative reinforcement.

positive punishment

20

Positive punishment occurs when
a positive stimulus is removed contingent upon behavior.
a stimulus presented contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.
data indicate that a negative reinforcement procedure is effective.
a stimulus removed contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.

a stimulus presented contingent upon behavior decreases the future probability of the behavior.

21

Reinforcers that do not have to be learned are
conditioned reinforcers.
least effective.
unconditioned reinforcers.
positive reinforcers.

unconditioned

22

Reinforcers that have to be learned are
primary reinforcers.
conditioned reinforcers.
positive reinforcers.
unconditioned reinforcers.

conditioned

23

Positive punishment requires
presentation of a stimulus prior to a behavior.
presentation of a stimulus following behavior.
removal of a stimulus following behavior.
removal of a stimulus preceding a behavior.

presentation of a stimulus following behavior.

24

Hitting decreases when removal of a toy is made contingent upon it. This exemplifies
negative punishment.
extinction.
negative reinforcement.
positive punishment.

neg punishment

Decks in Test Cards Class (41):