03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.04 Positive, Negative, Conditioned, and Unconditioned Punishment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 Principles, Processes, and Concepts / 03.04 Positive, Negative, Conditioned, and Unconditioned Punishment Deck (21):
1

To be a functional relationship, changes in antecedent or consequent events must alter the response class
consistently, but not necessarily each time.
over 50% of the time.
along all dimensions.
on each occasion.

consistently, but not necessarily each time.

There has to be an experimentally determined significant difference in the behavior relative to prior to the intervention, but the alteration does not have to be evident with each occurrence. In other words, a difference in level and/or trend is necessary with the onset of the intervention, but a few outlier data points may not compromise the demonstration of experimental control (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 144; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 4; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 238-241, 366)

2

Talking out in class is decreasing since it began being consequated with
a reprimand, which exemplifies type II punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies type I punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies positive punishment.
a reprimand, which exemplifies positive punishment.

a reprimand, which exemplifies positive punishment.


Positive punishment (Type I punishment): stimulus presented -> beh. decr.
Negative punishment (Type II punishment): stimulus removed -> beh. decr.
(Catania, 1998, pp. 107-108; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 26; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 23)

3

A dog barks and his abusive master gives him a sharp blow to the snout. The dog's frequency of barking decreases. The decrease in barking is likely the result of
unconditioned punishment.
negative reinforcement.
conditioned punishment.
(none of the others)

unconditioned punishment.

4

When an abusive master walks into a room, the dog stops wagging his tail. Termination of wagging may be the result of
negative punishment.
unconditioned punishment.
negative reinforcement.
conditioned punishment.

conditioned punishment.

5

Conditioned punishment
requires no previous learning history.
is more effective than unconditioned punishment.
is the same as negative punishment.
requires a previous learning history.

requires a previous learning history.

6

Experimentally showing an intervention leads to a particular treatment outcome indicates that a functional relation is
established.
caused.
valid.
demonstrated.

demonstrated.

7

Unconditioned punishment
requires a previous learning history.
requires no previous learning history.
is the same as negative punishment.
is more effective than conditioned punishment.

requires no previous learning history.

8

Experimental data indicating that changes in an antecedent or consequent stimulus class consistently alter the dimension of a response class
is a contingency.
is a functional relationship.
is a discriminative stimulus.
(all of the others)

is a functional relationship.

This defines a functional relationship. Other ways of defining a functional relationship are that it is the "...relation between a behavior and its determining variables" (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1980, p. 16), showing that "the dependent variable is a function of the independent variable and nothing else" (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, p. 238) or "...an event can be made to happen by the manipulation of other events" (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 1987, p. 144; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 4; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 238-241, 366).

9

A child kicks a large rock and stubs his toe. As a result he doesn't kick large rocks. This exemplifies
extinction.
type II punishment.
positive punishment.
negative punishment.

positive punishment.

10

Talking out in class is decreasing since it began being consequated with
a reprimand, which exemplifies type II punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies type I punishment.
a reprimand, which exemplifies negative punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies negative punishment.

a loss of points, which exemplifies negative punishment.

11

Talking out in class is decreasing since it began being consequated with
a reprimand, which exemplifies type II punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies type I reinforcement.
a reprimand, which exemplifies type I punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies type I punishment.

a reprimand, which exemplifies type I punishment.

12

Experimental data repeatedly indicate that every time the teacher walks into the room, on-task behavior increases.
Respondent behavior is demonstrated.
Punishment is demonstrated.
A functional relationship is demonstrated.
Extinction is demonstrated.

A functional relationship is demonstrated.

13

If several well-controlled experiments indicate that various interventions consistently evoke a particular behavior, several
functional relationships have been demonstrated, but a causal relationship has not been established.
instances of stimulus control have been demonstrated, but no instances of a functional relationship have been demonstrated.
(none of the others)
functional relationships and causal relationships have been demonstrated.

Stimulus control (and respondent behavior) involves antecedent events.

If an experiment can demonstrate that the independent variable and only the independent variable occasions an outcome, this would demonstrate a functional relationship. If it is demonstrated that ONLY ONE intervention can lead to an outcome, then the cause of the outcome would be established. Stimulus control and respondent behavior involve antecedent events. A functional relationship exists when experimental data indicate that changes in an antecedent or consequent stimulus class consistently alter a dimension of a response class. (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 238-241)

14

When an abusive master walks into a room, the dog walks out. The dog's behavior is likely maintained by
unconditioned reinforcement.
negative punishment.
conditioned punishment.
negative reinforcement.

negative reinforcer.

The master's presence occasioned walking out, so his removal is a negative reinforcer.

15

When we experimentally demonstrate that an intervention consistently leads to a certain outcome, we have
not demonstrated a cause, because to do so we would have to show that no other intervention can have that same outcome, which is almost impossible.
demonstrated a cause, because we have ruled out alternative explanations by using an experimental design.
not demonstrated a functional relation, because to do so we would have to conduct multiple replications and get the same outcome.
demonstrated a functional relation, but only if we could also demonstrate that no other intervention can have that same outcome.

not demonstrated a cause, because to do so we would have to show that no other intervention can have that same outcome, which is almost impossible.

A functional relation is evident when you have experimentally demonstrated a relation between an independent and dependent variable. That is, you've demonstrated that X leads to Y and all other variables that might explain the effect have been controlled or eliminated. However, to ALSO demonstrate cause, you would have to show that X AND ONLY X leads to Y. (Note that this is very difficult to achieve because you cannot experimentally demonstrate that there is nothing else could bring about the same results.) (Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 238-241)

16

A child's self-injury results in a contingent loss of points. However, this has not decreased self-injury. The loss of points exemplifies
(none of the others)
unconditioned punishment.
conditioned punishment.
negative reinforcement.

none

17

Experimentally showing that only one particular intervention leads to a treatment outcome and no other interventions lead to this outcome indicates that
a functional relation is demonstrated, but cause cannot be asserted.
the effective intervention may be a cause of the outcome.
a functional relation is maintained and the results are reliable.
the experiment is valid.

the effective intervention may be a cause.

18

If experimental data indicate that an antecedent stimulus consistently evokes a behavior,
a functional relationship is demonstrated.
an establishing operation must be in effect.
stimulus control is demonstrated.
(all of the others)

all others

19

Talking out in class is decreasing since it began being consequated with
a loss of points, which exemplifies type II punishment.
a loss of points, which exemplifies type I punishment.
a reprimand, which exemplifies type II punishment.
a reprimand, which exemplifies negative punishment.

a loss of points, which exemplifies type II punishment.

20

A joke you tell results in no laughter or any response from anyone. As a result, you stop telling it. This exemplifies
type II punishment.
positive punishment.
negative punishment.
extinction.

extinction

21

Punishment always involves
the removal of a favored stimulus.
the presentation of a disliked stimulus.
a decrease in behavior resulting from a contingent stimulus change.
(all of the others)

a decrease in behavior resulting from a contingent stimulus change.

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