03 - The Cranial Nerves Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 03 - The Cranial Nerves Deck (42):
0

What is the first cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Olfactory nerve

Sensory -sense of olfaction

It enters the nasal cavity through pores in the cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

1

What is the second cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Optic nerve

Sensory - sense of vision

Through the optic canal 

2

What is the third cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Oculomotor nerve

Motor - all extraocular muscles, including LOS but excluding lateral rectus and superior oblique 

Through the supraorbital fissure 

3

What is the fourth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Trochlear nerve

Motor - innervates the superior oblique

Through the supraorbital fissure 

4

What is the fifth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

 

Trigeminal nerve

Both motor and sensory

 

5

What is the sixth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Abducens nerve

Motor - innervates lateral rectus

Through the supraorbital fissure 

6

What is the seventh cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Facial nerve

Both motor (muscles of facial expression and stapedius)  and sensory

Through the internal acoustic meatus and then passes through the middle ear cavity out th ought the stylomastoid foramen

7

What is the eighth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Vestibulocochlear nerve

Sensory - hearing and balance

Through the internal acoustic meatus

8

What is the ninth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Glossopharnygeal nerve

Both motor (stylopharyngeus and sensory (posterior third of the tongue, Eustachian tube, I middle ear cavity, carotid branch innervates the carotid body and sinus) 

Through the jugular foramen 

9

What is the tenth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Vagus nerve

Both motor (intrinsic muscles of the larynx and pharynx, parasympathetic innervation to the bronchioles and GI tract)  and sensory (external ear, pinna, tympanic membrane, visceral sensation to the lungs and GI tract)

Through the jugular foramen 

10

What is the eleventh cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Spinal accessory nerve

Motor SCM and trapezius

Through the jugular foramen

11

What is the twelfth cranial nerve?

What type of functions does it serve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Hypoglossal nerve

Motor - muscles of the tongue

Through the hypoglossal canal

12

What is meant by anosmia?

Absence of the sense of smell

13

What are the three divisions of the trigeminal nerve?

Which divisions are sensory or motor?

Ophthalmic - sensory

Maxillary - sensory

Mandibular - both sensory and motor

14

What are the functions of the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Supplies sensory innervation to the scalp, forehead, upper eyelid and dorsum of the nose. Also sensation to the cornea and conjunctiva

Supraorbital fissure

15

What are the functions of the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Sensory innervation to skin of the lower eye, cheek and upper lip. Mucosa of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and palate. Roots of the upper teeth

Foramen rotundum

16

What are the functions of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve?

How does it leave the cranium?

Sensory innervation to skin of temples and chin. Mucosa of the inner cheek. Anterior 2/3 thirds of the tongue. Roots of the lower teeth. Motor innervation to muscles of mastication (temporalis, Masseter, medial and lateral pterygoids and anterior belly of digastric)

Foramen ovale 

17

What is the name of sensory division of the facial nerve?

Nervus intermedius

18

Why might pressing on a boil on the cheek lead to an abducens nerve palsy?

Increased risk of introducing pathogens from the boil through the valveless venous channels of the face in to the cavernous sinus.bit could lead to cavernous sinus thrombosis. CN3,4,5&6 are in close relation to the cavernous sinus so could be damaged.

19

Why might damage to the auriculotemporal nerve affect the parotid gland?

Parasympathetic fibres hitchhike along the auriculotemporal nerve, which innervate the parotid gland, therefore loss of parasympathetic innervation.

20

Why can a forceps delivery result in temporary facial palsies?

Compression damage to the motor branch of CN7 as it leaves the cranium via the exposed stylomastoid foramen due to the lack of protection by an underdeveloped mastoid process of the temporal bone.

21

What is meant by Ramsay-Hunt Syndrome?

A varicella-zoster infection of the geniculate ganglion

There is facial palsy(identical to Bell's) with an erythmatous vesicular rash around the EAM/tongue/hard palate.

CN8 is in close proximity so may be affected - tinnitus, hearing loss & vertigo

22

Where is the origin of the oculomotor and trochlear nerves?

Midbrain

23

Where is the origin of the trigeminal, abducens and facial nerves?

Pons

24

Where is the origin of the vestibulcochlear, glossopharyneal, vagus and hypoglossal nerves?

Medulla

25

Where is the origin of the spinal accessory nerve?

Forms at C2/C3

26

Identify the Olfactory Nerve CN1

Q image thumb

A

27

Identify the Optic Nerve CN2

Q image thumb

H

28

Identify the Oculomotor nerve CN3

Q image thumb

E

29

Identify the Trochlear nerve CN4

Q image thumb

I

30

Identify the Trigeminal Nerve CN5

Q image thumb

D

31

Identify the Abducens nerve CN6

Q image thumb

G

32

Identify the Facial Nerve CN7

Q image thumb

B

33

Identify the Vestibulocochlear Nerve CN8

Q image thumb

J

34

Identify the Glossopharnygeal Nerve CN9

Q image thumb

K

35

Identify the Vagus Nerve CN10

Q image thumb

F

36

Identify the Spinal Accessory Nerve CN11

Q image thumb

L

37

Identify the Hypoglossal Nerve CN12

Q image thumb

C

38

Identify the following structures

A B and C

Q image thumb

A: hypoglossal canal

B: superior orbital fissure

C: cribiform plate of the ethmoid bone

39

Identify the following structures

D E and F

Q image thumb

D: foramen spinosum (middle meningeal artery)

E: foramen lacerum (internal carotid which leaves and passes through the carotid canal)

F: optic canal

40

Identify the following structures

G H and I

Q image thumb

G: foramen ovale

H: foramen magnum

I: foramen rotundum

41

Identify the following structures

J and K

Q image thumb

J: internal acoustic meatus 

K: jugular foramen