04 Behavioral Assessment / 04.07 Functional Analysis - Data Organization, Interpretation, Display Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 04 Behavioral Assessment / 04.07 Functional Analysis - Data Organization, Interpretation, Display Deck (24):
1

The four conditions used by Iwata et al, (1982/1994) are
academic demand, play, attention, escape.
unstructured play, alone, social disapproval, and academic demand.
attention, social disapproval, control, and alone.
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, automatic reinforcement, control.

unstructured play, alone, social disapproval, and academic demand.

2

Which experimental designs are typically used to analyze functional analysis data?
changing criterion design and reversal design
reversal design and ABAB design
multielement design and multiple baseline design
ABAB design and multielement design

ABAB design and multielement design

The multielement design (also known as alternating treatments design and multiple schedule design) and reversal design (also known as ABAB design) are typically used. The multielement design involves rapid alternation between two or more conditions. For example, a demand session followed by an attention session, followed by a play session, etc., repeated over several sessions until rates of the target behavior are consistently higher in one or two types of sessions. With the reversal design, a condition is in place until stable responding occurs, followed by baseline, then another condition, etc. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

3

Which experimental designs are typically used to analyze functional analysis data?
reversal design and changing criterion design
ABAB design and reversal design
multielement design and multiple baseline design
alternating treatments design and reversal design

alternating treatments design and reversal design

The multielement design (also known as alternating treatments design and multiple schedule design) and reversal design (also known as ABAB design) are typically used. The multielement design involves rapid alternation between two or more conditions. For example, a demand session followed by an attention session, followed by a play session, etc., repeated over several sessions until rates of the target behavior are consistently higher in one or two types of sessions. With the reversal design, a condition is in place until stable responding occurs, followed by baseline, then another condition, etc. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

4

For analyzing functional analysis data, the multielement design
is least efficient.
is used more in descriptive analysis.
requires a return to baseline.
is ideal when experimental conditions are easily discriminated.

is ideal when experimental conditions are easily discriminated.

For functional analysis, the multielement design is used most often. It is an efficient design that doesn't require lengthy exposure to a single experimental condition. The reversal design is better suited for when conditions are not easily discriminated. That is, lengthy exposure to the experimental conditions fosters discrimination more so than does alternating conditions each session. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

5

For analyzing functional analysis data, the multielement design
requires a return to baseline.
is most efficient.
is ideal when experimental conditions are not easily discriminated.
used more in descriptive analysis.

is most efficient.
For functional analysis, the multielement design is used most often. It is an efficient design that doesn't require lengthy exposure to a single experimental condition. The reversal design is better suited for when conditions are not easily discriminated. That is, lengthy exposure to the experimental conditions fosters discrimination more so than does alternating conditions each session. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

6

A behavior is maintained by the attention of a particular peer. A teacher-implemented analogue assessment
should be conducted in vivo.
is likely to identify this function.
is unlikely to identify this function.
should not be conducted for ethical reasons.

It is unlikely to identify the function because the peer is not providing the reinforcement.

Analogue assessments exert experimental control over typical variables that account for behavior. However, sometimes behavior is controlled by variables that are omitted from the analogue setting. (Carr, 1994, p. 395)

7

The four conditions used by Iwata et al (1982/1994) are
academic demand, unstructured play, alone, and social disapproval.
social disapproval, attention, control, and alone.
play, academic demand, attention, escape.
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, automatic reinforcement, control

social disapproval, academic demand, unstructured play, and alone.

The original four conditions-social disapproval, academic demand, unstructured play, and alone-are sometimes referred to as attention, escape, play, and alone. Note also that the descriptions positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, control, and automatic reinforcement are analogous to these, respectively. (Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 504; Iwata et al, 1982/1994; Iwata et al, 2000)

8

For evaluating functional analysis data, the reversal design
does not require a return to baseline.
is most efficient.
is ideal when experimental conditions are not easily discriminated.
requires a rapid alternation of conditions.

ideal when condition not easily discriminated.

For functional analysis, the multielement design is used most often. It is an efficient design that doesn't require lengthy exposure to a single experimental condition. The reversal design is better suited for when conditions are not easily discriminated. That is, lengthy exposure to the experimental conditions fosters discrimination more so than does alternating conditions each session. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

9

Which characterizes the ACADEMIC DEMAND condition in Iwata et al, (1982/1994)?
periodic tasks, "Touch your nose," contingent termination of task
access to toys, isolate or social activities allowed, self-injury ignored
individual plays, no structure, "Please stop" when behavior occurs
access to toys, subject only one present, no programmed consequence

periodic tasks, "Touch your nose," contingent termination of task


SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL-The therapist provides toys but no structure; attends to subject only contingent upon self-injury. Makes statements of concern (e.g., "Don't hurt yourself.").
PLAY-This is the control condition. It is an enriched environment with lots of attention available, no demands, and no attention for self-injury.
ACADEMIC DEMAND-Periodic prompts are given to work. Self-injury results in termination of demand to do the task.
ALONE-Subject is alone and observed surreptitiously.
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 504; Iwata et al, 1982/1994; Iwata et al, 2000)

10

The four conditions used by Iwata et al, (1982/1994) are
social disapproval, academic demand, unstructured play, and alone.
play, academic demand, attention, escape.
social disapproval, attention, control, and alone.
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, automatic reinforcement, control.

social disapproval, academic demand, unstructured play, and alone.

11

A "tangible condition" is sometimes used in functional analysis to determine
if access to an object contingent upon a behavior is a function.
if removal of an object contingent upon a behavior is a function.
if access to a social interaction contingent upon a behavior is a function.
which items are reinforcers and should be used in social disapproval and academic demand conditions.

if access to an object contingent upon a behavior is a function.

12

Which experimental designs are typically used to analyze functional analysis data?
reversal design and ABAB design
alternating treatments design and changing criterion design
reversal design and multielement design
multielement design and multiple schedule design

reversal design and multielement design

The multielement design (also known as alternating treatments design and multiple schedule design) and reversal design (also known as ABAB design) are typically used. The multielement design involves rapid alternation between two or more conditions. For example, a demand session followed by an attention session, followed by a play session, etc., repeated over several sessions until rates of the target behavior are consistently higher in one or two types of sessions. With the reversal design, a condition is in place until stable responding occurs, followed by baseline, then another condition, etc. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

13

Which characterizes the PLAY condition in Iwata et al (1982/1994)?
access to toys, isolate or social activities allowed, self-injury ignored
access to toys, individual is the only one present, no programmed consequence
subject plays, therapist provides no direction, "Please stop."
periodic tasks, "Touch your nose," contingent termination of task

access to toys, isolate or social activities allowed, self-injury ignored

SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL-The therapist provides toys but no structure; attends to subject only contingent upon self-injury. Makes statements of concern (e.g., "Don't hurt yourself.").
PLAY-This is the control condition. It is an enriched environment with lots of attention available, no demands, and no attention for self-injury.
ACADEMIC DEMAND-Periodic prompts are given to work. Self-injury results in termination of demand to do the task.
ALONE-Subject is alone and observed surreptitiously.
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 504; Iwata et al, 1982/1994; Iwata et al, 2000)

14

Standard functional analysis methodology is not helpful in identifying self-injury maintained by
release of endogenous opiates.
access to cookies when the EO for hunger could not be assessed.
release of anger resulting from demands.
(all of the others)

release of endogenous opiates.

Some self-injury is believed to be maintained by the release of endogenous opiates. Aside from identifying this as the broad category of automatic reinforcement, standard functional analysis methodology does not point to endogenous opiates as a maintaining consequence. (Carr, 1994)

15

Which experimental designs are typically used to analyze functional analysis data?
multielement design and reversal design
multielement design and alternating treatments design
reversal design and multiple baseline design
multiple schedule design and multielement design

multielement design and reversal design

The multielement design (also known as alternating treatments design and multiple schedule design) and reversal design (also known as ABAB design) are typically used. The multielement design involves rapid alternation between two or more conditions. For example, a demand session followed by an attention session, followed by a play session, etc., repeated over several sessions until rates of the target behavior are consistently higher in one or two types of sessions. With the reversal design, a condition is in place until stable responding occurs, followed by baseline, then another condition, etc. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003, pp. 179-184, 203-209; Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

16

No social interaction is available in which condition in Iwata et al. (1982/1994)?
unstructured play
academic demand
alone
social disapproval

alone

17

Which characterizes the ALONE condition in Iwata et al, (1982/1994)?
access to toys, isolate or social activities allowed, no programmed consequence
periodic tasks, "Touch your nose," contingent termination of task
impoverished environment, subject only one present, self-injury ignored
subject plays, therapist provides no direction, "Please stop."

impoverished environment, subject only one present, self-injury ignored

18

Close proximity to the subject, isolate and social activities, and ignoring of self-injury characterizes which condition in Iwata et al, (1982/1994)?
social disapproval
alone
unstructured play
academic demand

unstructured play

19

Which is the potential confound in tangible conditions?
contingent object and termination of demand
contingent attention
consequences are not immediate
(all of the others)

contingent attention

ooking only at tangible condition data, one cannot practically determine whether the controlling variable was the presentation of the tangible, or the attention that necessarily accompanied it. That is, it is difficult to present a tangible without there also being some social element. However, this is remedied by comparing the tangible condition to an attention condition. In other words, one should not conclude from a high rate of behavior in a tangible condition that it serves that function, UNLESS it is high relative to the attention condition. (Iwata et al, 2000, p. 68)

20

Requests to do tasks and termination of requests contingent upon self-injury characterizes which condition in Iwata et al, (1982/1994)?
social disapproval
alone
academic demand
unstructured play

academic demand

21

A functional analysis of food refusal in a severely disabled individual might include conditions that vary by
food type.
food type, food texture, or food type and texture (i.e., all of the others).
food texture.
food type and texture (i.e., both--not one or the other).

food type, food texture, or food type and texture (i.e., all of the others).

Food acceptance may vary according to the food type, texture, or both type and text. Munk and Repp (1994) analyzed food type, texture, and type and texture and found that different variables were correlated with food acceptance for different individuals.

22

Which characterizes the SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL condition in Iwata et al. (1982/1994)?
access to toys, isolate or social activities allowed, self-injury ignored
individual plays, no structure, "Please stop" when behavior occurs
access to toys, subject only one present, no programmed consequence
periodic tasks, "Touch your nose," contingent termination of task

individual plays, no structure, "Please stop" when behavior occurs

SOCIAL DISAPPROVAL-The therapist provides toys but no structure; attends to subject only contingent upon self-injury. Makes statements of concern (e.g., "Don't hurt yourself.").
PLAY-This is the control condition. It is an enriched environment with lots of attention available, no demands, and no attention for self-injury.
ACADEMIC DEMAND-Periodic prompts are given to work. Self-injury results in termination of demand to do the task.
ALONE-Subject is alone and observed surreptitiously.
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, p. 504; Iwata et al, 1982/1994; Iwata et al, 2000)

23

A modification of the "alone condition" for when a subject cannot be alone for safety or supervision reasons is
supervised alone-the therapist maintains continued eye-contact with the subject.
stop behavior-the therapist is present and ignores; but physically prevents the behavior if necessary to prevent injury.
diverted reinforcement-the subject is supervised and all reinforcement that would have been earned is given after the session.
noncontingent reinforcement-the therapist gives tangible reinforcement on a VI schedule noncontingent on any behavior.

stop behavior-the therapist is present and ignores; but physically prevents the behavior if necessary to prevent injury.

The purpose of the alone condition is to examine the behavior in the absence of socially-mediated reinforcement. Ideally, removal of the SD (i.e., the person who would deliver that reinforcement) would remove all elements of stimulus control, if the behavior is maintained by attention. However, when this cannot be done for safety or supervision reasons, no interaction will suffice. (Vollmer et al, 1994)

24

No structure and the individual largely ignored until self-injury occurs characterizes which condition in Iwata et al, (1982/1994)?
unstructured play
social disapproval
academic demand
alone

social disapproval

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