05 Experimental Evaluation of Interventions / 05.01 Levels of Scientific Understanding Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 05 Experimental Evaluation of Interventions / 05.01 Levels of Scientific Understanding Deck (19):
1

Which could be a dependent variable for a student in a classroom?
time from onset to completion
rate at which the teacher delivers reinforcement
number of correct math problems completed in a minute
aggression

number of correct math problems completed in a minute

The INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the arrangement of events by the experimenter to exert control over the target behavior. It is what the experimenter does to influence behavior. Examples include implementation of a reinforcement procedure, employing a different prompting procedure, using a new curriculum, changing the physical environment, and introduction of a medication. Note that a DEPENDENT VARIABLE is the target behavior and the dimension of that behavior that is being measured (e.g., rate of greetings, duration of study, frequency of hand biting). (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 64-76; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 148-150; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 164-166; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 9, 367; Poling et al., 1995 p. 2)

2

A dependent variable
is a measure of the behavior of the experimenter.
is controlled by the experimenter.
specifies the target behavior.
specifies a change in the environment.

specifies the target behavior.

The INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the arrangement of events by the experimenter to exert control over the target behavior. It is what the experimenter does to influence behavior. Examples include implementation of a reinforcement procedure, employing a different prompting procedure, using a new curriculum, changing the physical environment, and introduction of a medication. Note that a DEPENDENT VARIABLE is the target behavior and the dimension of that behavior that is being measured (e.g., rate of greetings, duration of study, frequency of hand biting). (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 64-76; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 148-150; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 164-166; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 9, 367; Poling et al., 1995 p. 2)

3

Which could be an independent variable for a student in a classroom?
starting the child on a medication
out of seat behavior during the first hour after taking medication
frequency of hand biting instances
(none of the others)

starting the child on a medication

4

An independent variable
involves measurement of the target behavior.
includes a label for the behavior.
designates the dimension of measure.
is controlled by the experimenter.

is controlled by the experimenter.

5

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "The children consistently have fewer behavior problems on 'point system' days"?
outcome
prediction
description
control

control

DESCRIPTION-systematic observations that can be quantified and classified
PREDICTION-two events vary consistently; i.e. when one event occurs, we are likely to see the other, but one doesn't necessarily cause the other
CONTROL (FUNCTIONAL RELATION)-experimental demonstration that manipulating one event results in another event
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 143-144; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 159-160; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 2-3)

6

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "If you use reinforcement, he is always cooperative, but he is almost never cooperative if you don't"?
control
description
outcome
prediction

control

DESCRIPTION-systematic observations that can be quantified and classified
PREDICTION-two events vary consistently; i.e. when one event occurs, we are likely to see the other, but one doesn't necessarily cause the other
CONTROL (FUNCTIONAL RELATION)-experimental demonstration that manipulating one event results in another event
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 143-144; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 159-160; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 2-3)

7

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "Withdrawal design data indicate that when children get training, scores go up--when they don't, scores go down"?
prediction
outcome
description
control


control

DESCRIPTION-systematic observations that can be quantified and classified
PREDICTION-two events vary consistently; i.e. when one event occurs, we are likely to see the other, but one doesn't necessarily cause the other
CONTROL (FUNCTIONAL RELATION)-experimental demonstration that manipulating one event results in another event
(Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 143-144; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 159-160; Poling et al., 1995, pp. 2-3)

8

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "Children who receive special education are less likely to go to college"?
outcome
control
prediction
description

prediction

9

Which could be an independent variable for a student in a classroom?
rate at which the teacher delivers reinforcement
out of seat behavior during the first hour after taking medication
number of correct math problems completed in a minute
(all of the others)

rate at which the teacher delivers reinforcement

10

A dependent variable
designates the dimension of measure.
is a measure of the behavior of the experimenter.
designates the parameters of the intervention.
specifies a change in the environment.

designates the dimension of measure.

The INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the arrangement of events by the experimenter to exert control over the target behavior. It is what the experimenter does to influence behavior. Examples include implementation of a reinforcement procedure, employing a different prompting procedure, using a new curriculum, changing the physical environment, and introduction of a medication. Note that a DEPENDENT VARIABLE is the target behavior and the dimension of that behavior that is being measured (e.g., rate of greetings, duration of study, frequency of hand biting). (Bailey & Burch, 2002, pp. 64-76; Cooper, Heron, & Heward., 1987, pp. 148-150; Cooper, Heron, & Heward, 2007, pp. 164-166; Johnston & Pennypacker, 1993b, pp. 9, 367; Poling et al., 1995 p. 2)

11

Which could be a dependent variable for a student in a classroom?
frequency of times out of seat
aggressive acts
frequency
rate at which the teacher delivers reinforcement

frequency of times out of seat

12

A dependent variable
specifies a change in the environment.
is controlled by the experimenter.
involves a measure of the behavior of the subject.
involves a measure of the behavior of the experimenter.

involves a measure of the behavior of the subject.

13

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "The standardized test scores ranged from 75-125"?
control
outcome
description
prediction

description

14

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "Children from dysfunctional families score lower on standardized tests"?
prediction
control
outcome
description

prediction

15

Which level of scientific understanding is suggested by, "The average duration of responses was three minutes"?
description
control
prediction
outcome

description

16

An independent variable
designates the dimension of measure.
may involve a change in the environment.
is controlled by the subject.
involves measurement of the target behavior.

may involve a change in the environment.

17

Which of the following are the three levels of scientific understanding?
control, prediction, description
prediction, description, assessment
outcome, prediction, description
outcome, description, control

control, prediction, description

18

Which of the following are the three levels of scientific understanding?
description, control, assessment
prediction, description, control
assessment, prediction, control
prediction, description, outcome

prediction, description, control

19

Which of the following are the three levels of scientific understanding?
assessment, description, control
assessment, prediction, control
description, prediction, outcome
description, prediction, control

description, prediction, control

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