05: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E. Flashcards Preview

AP World History > 05: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E. > Flashcards

Flashcards in 05: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities, and Declines by 500 C.E. Deck (27):
1

Axum

~Kingdom located in Ethiopian highlands; replaced Meroë in first century C.E.; received strong influence from Arabian peninsula; eventually converted to Christianity.
~Kingdom that defeated Kush around 300 B.C.E.
~Helped influence North Africa's Heritage

2

Ethiopia

~A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa.
~Took over Axum
~Influenced culture of the region

3

Sahara

~Desert running across northern Africa; separates the Mediterranean coast from southern Africa.
~Very difficult to travel through
~Influenced trade with Mediterranean and Africa; Influenced culture of civilizations inside and around

4

Shinto

~Religion of early Japanese culture; devotees worshiped numerous gods and spirits associated with the natural world; offers of food and prayers made to gods and nature spirits.
~Early Japanese religion.
~Influenced Japanese culture

5

Olmec culture

~Cultural tradition that arose at San Lorenzo and La Venta in Mexico c. 1200 B.C.E.; featured irrigated agriculture, urbanism, elaborate religion, beginnings of calendrical and writing systems
~First civilization in Central America
~Laid the groundwork for later civilizations

6

Teoihuacan

~Site of classic culture in central Mexico; urban center with important religious functions; supported by intensive agriculture in surrounding regions; population as much as 200,000.
~Major urban center of early Mexico
~Source of trade and religion in early Central America

7

Maya

~Classical culture emerging in southern Mexico and Central America contemporary with Teoihuacan; extended over broad region; featured monumental architecture, written language, calendrical and mathematical systems, highly developed religion.
~Powerful Classical Central American civilzation
~Greatly influenced culture of central america

8

Inca

~Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire incorporating various Andean cultures; term also used for leader of empire.
~Early civilization of South America
~Developed independently from the rest of the world

9

Polynesia

~Islands contained in a rough triangle whose points lie in Hawaii, New Zealand, and Easter Island.
~Island nations of Pacific
~Developed distinct and individual cultures

10

Yellow Turbans

~Chinese Daoists who launched a revolt in 184 C.E. in China promising a golden age to be brought about by divine magic.
~Helped bring about the Han collapse
~Brought 3 centuries of chaos

11

Sui

~Dynasty that succeeded the Han in China; emerged from strong rulers in northern China; united all of northern China and reconquered southern China.
~Brought end to chaos after Han collpse
~United all of China

12

Tang

~Dynasty that succeeded the Sui in 618 C.E.; more stable than previous dynasty.
~Brought stability to China
~Sponsored one of the most glorious periods in Chinese history

13

Rajput

~Regional princes in western India; emphasized military control of their regions.
~Ruling group of much of India after Gupta collapse
~Indian culture evolved greatly

14

Devi

~Mother goddess within Hinduism; widely spread following collapse of Guptas; encouraged new emotionalism in religious ritual.
~New popular goddess to worship
~New popular emotionalism in religious ritual

15

Islam

~Major world religion having its origins in 610 C.E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally submission; based on prophecy of Muhammad.
~Religion of armies that invaded India
~Invasion strengthened Hindu religious vigor

16

Allah

~Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam.
~Inspired Islamic peoples
~Movement of Islam greatly influenced other cultures

17

Byzantine Empire

~Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; later lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.
~Eastern Roman Empire that lasted much longer than its western counterpart
~Vibrant, artistically creative, and active in trade

18

Justinian

~Early Byzantine emperor, responsible for major building in Constantinople and a Codification of Roman law; his efforts to recapture some additional previously Roman territory ended in failure.
~Byzantine emperor who tried to recapture heritage of Rome
~Responsible for major building in Constantinople and a Codification of Roman law

19

Augustine (Saint)

~Influential church father and theologian; born in Africa and ultimately the bishop of Hippo in Africa; champion of Christian doctrine against various heresies and very important in the long-term development of Christian thought on such issues as predestination.
~Great Christian theologian from North Africa
~Inspired and guided much Christian thought

20

Coptic

~Christian sect in Egypt, later tolerated after Islamic takeover.
~Sect that separated from main Christian branch
~Branch that still survives today

21

bodhisattvas

~Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetimes; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness.
~Change of doctrine in Buddhism
~Shifted from emphasis on ethics to become more emotional cult stressing the possibility of popular salvation

22

Mahayana

~Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savoir.
~Change in Buddhism to fit East Asia
~Influenced East Asian culture

23

Jesus of Nazareth

~Prophet and teacher among the Jews; believed by Christians to be the Messiah; executed c. 30 C.E.
~Important Christian Figure
~Much of Christian beliefs are centered around Jesus.

24

Paul

~One of the first Christian missionaries; moved away from insistence that adherents of the new religion follow Jewish law; use of Greek as language of Church.
~Changed Christian rules to be more inclusive
~Allowed Christianity to grow and spread quickly

25

pope

~Bishop of Rome; head of the Christian Church in western Europe.
~leader of centralized leadership of Western Christian Church
~Brought stability to Christian faith

26

Benedict of Nursia

~Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rules in Byzantine Empire.
~Urged disciplined life, with prayer and spiritual fulfillment
~Encouraged and discipline intense piety in Church

27

animism

~A religious outlook that sees gods in many aspects of nature and propitiates them to help control and explain nature; typical of Mesopotamian religion.
~A type of religion that was mostly abandoned with the advancement of civilization
~Influence was lessened .: care for nature was less

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