Flashcards in 0521 - Impact of the psychological on health and well-being 1 - EG Deck (22):
What is cognitive psychology?
The scientific study of how individuals process information from the outside world. Includes processes such as memory, attention, perception, and learning.
What is a conditioned response?
where a neutral stimulus (one that under normal circumstances does not lead to a response), is used to train in a particular response.
What is somatic symptom disorder?
One in which symptoms suggest a medical condition however no medical/biological cause can be found.
Is malingering a somatic symptom disorder?
No, as person is intentionally faking a symptom, there is no honest belief that they are ill and require medical attention.
What is hypochondriasis now classified as? What are some symptoms?
somatic symptom disorder. Symptoms include excessive concern and persistent belief about having a serious illness, misinterpretation or exaggeration of sensations, honest belief they are ill and require medical attention.
What is Munchausen syndrome?
a factitious disorder in which physical or psychological symptoms are intentionally produced, exaggerated or faked in order to assume the sick role to gain attention, sympathy etc. For example faking symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy (hair loss, vomiting, weight-loss etc)
What is Munchausen syndrome by proxy?
medical abuse where a person produces illness in someone in their care, for example a parent deliberately making a child ill to gain attention.
What is hysteria classified as? What are the symptoms?
Conversion disorder. Symptoms are physical disabilities such as blindness and paralysis which have no physiological basis. For example hysterical blindness due to an inability of the brain to perceive visual stimuli, not loss of sensation of eye.
What are two theories behind hysteria?
psychodynamic theory: internal psychological conflicts being unconsciously expressed physically. Franz Anton Mesmer: hypnotism to cure psychological basis of physical symptoms.
The idea that what we experience is the result of subjective processing/interpretation of sensory input, not direct perception.
Explain the cycle of pain and depression.
depressed patient have a 3 fold increased risk of developing chronic pain and patients with chronic pain have a 3 fold increased risk of developing mood or anxiety disorders. This is due to depression intensifying the perception of pain, learning to fear activities that may cause pain, and attending to pain more when inactive and isolated.
Provide examples of sensory hallucinations.
tactile hallucination, such as believing being infested with parasites and getting skin lesions from excessive scratching. phantom limb syndrome. Phantom limb syndrome.
What is dyscalculia?
a learning disability characterised by impaired ability to perform calculations, estimate figures, understand mathematical concepts such as magnitude, etc.
How does dyscalculia influence health?
numeracy skills are required to understand the risks, benefits, likelihoods and value of health related behaviours. This influences the ability to make informed health decisions, treatment compliance, and ultimately changes in health behaviour.
How would dyscalculia affect someone with diabetes?
Patient would be poorly informed about disease and symptoms to watch for, have difficulty in diet management (interpreting food labels and portion sizes), have poorer glycaemic control and lower self-efficacy in disease management.
What happens to a person with impaired working or short-term memory?
Cannot commit information to long-term memory, though can still retrieve information from LTM. Difficulty with executive processing, planning, decision making and problem solving.
What happens to impaired long-term memory?
impaired procedural memory, can't remember 'how-to' information. impaired declarative memory such as semantic memory (can't remember facts, meanings, definitions) and episodic memory (autobiographical information)
Which is impaired first in Alzheimer's - short or long term memory?
short term memory.
What happens to memory in anterograde amnesia?
cant explicitly remember anything after trauma/injury/illness.
What happens to memory in retrograde amnesia?
Can't remember anything before trauma/injury/illness.
What considerations would you take in treating a patient with dyscalculia?
Use visual examples, more guidance in / closer management