06 Brainstem Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 06 Brainstem Deck (43):
1

Growth within the brain parenchyma

Intra-axial

2

Growth outside the brain or outside the neuroaxis

Extra-axial

3

Brainstem is a _______ derivative

Neural tube

4

Roof of the cavity

Tectum

5

A hollow structure with fluid-filled cavity within
Around the fluid-filled space are gray matter and the cerebellum

Brainstem

6

Floor of the cavity where we find the columns of cells

Tegmentum

7

The massive substance of the brainstem, formed by motor tracts going down

Base

8

Also called Sylvian aqueduct

Cerebral aqueduct

9

Pinkish color is attributed to iron content
Maily responsible for movement in animals without corticospinal tracts or quadruplets
Crawling of babies and arm swing are controlled by this nucleus

Red nucleus

10

Contains the superior colliculi, extends from the intercollicular groove to the posterior commissure

Rostral midbrain

11

Cranial nerve visible in rostral midbrain

CN III

12

Gray matter for sudden eye movement (saccades)
Paired bumps in the midbrain tectum
Neurons respond to visual, auditory and somatosensory stimuli

Superior colliculus

13

Superior + inferior collilulus

Corpora quadrigemina

14

Gray matter
Pale on myelin-stained brain tissue, dark on unstained brain tissues
Produces dopamine
Receives and sends fiber to the putamen and caudate nucleus

Substantia nigra

15

Lies close to the substantia nigra and red nucleus
Provides dopaminergic innervation to the basal ganglia, frontal cortex, and limbic system
Activities that elicit pleasure activates this area

Ventral tegmental area

16

In the floor of the cerebral aqueduct
A complex of 2 groups of smaller subnuclei that innervate individual muscles of the eyeball

Oculomotor nucleus

17

Contains the inferior colliculi
Extends from where the trochlear nerve emerges to the intercollicular groove

Caudal midbrain

18

Cranial nerve visible in caudal midbrain

CN IV

19

Role in defensive behavior in animals (pain system)
Role in female copulatory behavior (lordosis behavior) via pathway from the hypothalamus

Periaqueductal gray matter

20

Principal nucleus of the auditory pathway in the midbrain

Inferior colliculus

21

Continues its course in the midline below the floor of the cerebral aqueduct

Medial longitudinal fasciculus

22

Fibers decussate in the superior medullary velum of the tectum and exit dorsally. Very small because it only innervates the superior oblique muscles

Trochlear nucleus

23

From the point of attachment of the trigeminal nerve to the beginning of the cerebral aqueduct at the point of emergence of the trochlear nerve

Rostral pons

24

Two small dots in the tegmentum of the brainstem
Receives afferent from hypothalamus, cingulate cortex, and amygdala

Locus ceruleus

25

Locus ceruleus contains

Norepinephrine

26

Source of norepinophrine

Ascending reticular ascending system

27

Bottom half of the pons from the point of attachment of CN V to the lateral wall of the 4th ventricle

Caudal pons

28

Broken up by pontine nuclei and their decussating fibers, which form the middle cerebellar peduncle

Pyramidal tract (corticospinal tract)

29

Formed by fascicles from the facial nucleus which loop around the abducens nucleus which lies on the floor of the 4th ventricles

Facial colliculus

30

Another distinct structure in the pons
Mustache-like fibers that separate tegmentum from the basis pontis

Medial lemniscus

31

2 sets of bumps in the roof of the medulla where ascending light touch pathway ends

Nucleus cuneatus
Nucleus gracilis

32

From the obex to the lateral recess where the inferior cerebellar peduncle enters the cerebellum

Rostral medulla

33

Triangular structure of white matter perched on top of the olive and pyramid in crosssetion

Medial lemniscus

34

Prominent feature of the rostral medulla, froms the swelling called the olive

Inferior olivary nucleus

35

Lies in the floor of the 4th ventricle, dorsolateral to the hypoglossal nucleus
Main parasympathetic nucleus

Dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

36

Major visceral sensory nucleus of the brainstem

Nucleus of the solitary tract

37

Cannot be distinguished in myelin stained brain tissue
Hybrid nucleus with both branchial motor and autonomic components
Located dorsal to the inferior olivary nucleus, within the ventrolateral tegmentum, embedded within the reticular formation

Ambiguous nucleus

38

The vestibular and cochlear nuclei occupy the ventricular floor at the _____

Pontomedullary junction

39

Pyramids in the ventral aspect of medulla contain the descending fibers of the ____

Corticospinal tract

40

Where the motor pathway will start to cross to the other side

Cervicomedullary junction

41

Afferents rostral to T6 bundles here

Cuneate fasciculus

42

Afferents caudal to T6 bundles here

Fasciculus gracilis

43

Closed medulla
From pyramidal decussation to the obex

Caudal medulla