06 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550-1789 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 06 Enlightenment and Revolution, 1550-1789 Deck (39):
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Scientific Revolution

new way of thinking about the natural world based on careful observation and a willingness to question

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heliocentric theory

theory that the sun is at the center of the universe

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geocentric theory

theory that the earth is at the center of the universe

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Galileo Galilei

scientist who built a telescope to observe and study the heavens; his findings showed irregularities in the heavens and also lent support to a sun-centered universe, which went against church teaching and authority

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scientific method

logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas

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Isaac Newton

scientist who discovered laws of motion and gravity

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Ptolemy

Greek astronomer that supported the view of the earth as the universe's center

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Polish cleric and astronomer who reasoned that the sun must be the center of the universe

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Johannes Kepler

discovered the mathematical laws that governed the movements of the planets, specifically that they moved in elliptical paths

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Tycho Brahe

carefully measured the movements of planets for many years, thus amassing a wealth of data that other astronomers would then interpret

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Enlightenment

also known as the Age of Reason

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social contract

the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government

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Thomas Hobbes

thought that a powerful government such as an absolute monarchy was needed to establish the law and order necessary to control the people's selfish desires

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John Locke

thought that people were born equal, with three natural rights--life, liberty, and property

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philosophes

French social critics who believed that reason could be applied to all aspects of life

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Voltaire

“I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”

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Baron de Montesquieu

proposed that separation of powers would keep any individual or group from gaining total control of the government

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Jean Jacques Rousseau

believed that the only good government was one that was freely formed by the people and guided by the “general will” of society—a direct democracy

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Cesare Bonesana Beccaria

argued that a person accused of a crime should receive a speedy trial, that torture should never be used, and that the degree of punishment should be based on the seriousness of the crime

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Mary Wollstonecraft

argued that women, like men, need education to become virtuous and useful

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legacy of the Enlightenment

emphasis on progress, secularism, and individualism

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Denis Diderot

compiled a large set of books containing scholarly articles and essays called Encyclopedia

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Marie-Thérèse Geoffrin

influential salon hostess that helped finance Diderot

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salon

a social gathering of intellectuals and artists, like those held in the homes of wealthy women in Paris and other European cities during the Enlightenment

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baroque

relating to a grand, ornate style that characterized European painting, music, and architecture in the 1600s and early 1700s

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neoclassical

relating to a simple, elegant style (based on ideas and themes from ancient Greece and Rome) that characterized the arts in Europe during the late 1700s

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enlightened despot

one of the 18th-century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule justly and respect the rights of subjects

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Frederick the Great

granted many religious freedoms, reduced censorship, and improved education; reformed the justice system and abolished the use of torture; believed that serfdom was wrong, but he did nothing to end it since he needed the support of wealthy landowners; referred to [him/her]self as “the first servant of the state”

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Catherine the Great

recommended allowing religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment while accomplishing none of the above

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French and Indian War

a conflict between Britain and France for control of territory in North America, lasting from 1754 to 1763

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Stamp Act

an act of the British Parliament in 1756 that required American colonists to pay a tax to have an official stamp put on wills, deeds, newspapers, and other printed material

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Boston Tea Party

to protest an import tax on tea, a group of colonists dumped a large load of British tea into Boston Harbor

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Declaration of Independence

a statement of the reasons for the American colonies’ break with Britain, approved by the Second Continental Congress in 1776

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Thomas Jefferson

author of the Declaration of Independence; used John Locke's ideas of natural rights and rebelling against an unjust ruler

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Articles of Confederation

created a weak national government, which had no power to collect taxes or regulate trade

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Constitution

created a stronger central government, with some powers reserved for state governments

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checks and balances

measures designed to prevent any one branch of government from dominating the others

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federal system

a system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states

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Bill of Rights

the first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution, which protect citizens’ basic rights and freedoms