06: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam Flashcards Preview

AP World History > 06: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam > Flashcards

Flashcards in 06: The First Global Civilization: The Rise and Spread of Islam Deck (36):
1

bedouin

-Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
-Beginning of Islamic culture.
-Set the basis for later Arabian civilization

2

shayks

-Leaders of tribes and clans within bedouin society; usually men with large herds, several wives, and many children.
-Leaders of bedouin tribes
-Brought a semblance of order

3

Mecca

-City located in mountainous region along Red Sea in Arabian peninsula; founded by Umayyad clan of Quraysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of cheif religious pilgrimage point in Islam.
-Major center of trade and birthplace of Muhammad
-Helped bring influence to Arabian culture.

4

Umayyad

-Clan of Quraysh that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan established dynasty as rulers of Islam, 661 to 750.
-First major clan of Arabian culture
-Influenced culture of politics of the region.

5

Ka'ba

-Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus on obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
-Important religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia.
-Brought temporary truce between bedouin tribes.

6

Medina

-Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palm whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra).
-Trading city near Mecca.
-Where Muhammad flew to.

7

Muhammad

-Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father'y family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632.
-Starter of Islam.
-Islam is a major and influential world religion.

8

Khadijah

-First wife of the prophet Muhammad, who had worked for her as a trader.
-One of the original followers of Muhammad.

9

Qur'an

-Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam.
-Basis of Islam
-Shaped Islam and Islamic world.

10

Ali

-Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'a.
-Secured safe passage for Muhammad and his followers to Medina.
-Without him Islam may not even exist.

11

umma

-Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity.
-Brought degree of political unity.

12

zakat

-Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims.
-Showed less contempt for those of lower classes.
-Rich were forbidden from exploiting the poor.

13

five pillars

-The obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj.
-Basic duties of all Muslims
-Structured daily Muslim life.

14

caliph

-The political and religious successor to Muhammad.
-Political/religious leaders after Muhammad's death.
-Controlled SPICE for Islamic world.

15

Bakar, Abu

-One of Muhammad's earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community.
-First political leader of Islamic world.
-Very able commander.

16

Ridda Wars

-Wars that followed Muhammad's death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam.
-Restored unity of Islam
-Unity needed for spreading and prosperity.

17

jihad

-Struggle; often used for wars in defense of the faith.
-Holy wars to spread faith.
-Increases Islam's geographical influence.

18

Copts

-Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic tribes of this area in preference to Byzantine rule.
-Supported Islamic invasion.
-Made jihad easier.

19

Nestorians

-A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
-Supported Islamic invasion.
-Made jihad easier.

20

Uthman

-Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning form Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan.
-First caliph to be chosen from Muhammad's enemies.
-Caused unrest over his position.

21

Battle of Siffin

-Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party.
-War because of caliph power succession.
-Made Ali's party weaker and fragmented.

22

Mu'awiya

-Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali.
-Leader following Ali.
-Brought back relative peace.

23

Sunnis

-Political and theological division within Islam; supported the Umayyads.
-Supporters of Umayyads.
-Hostility still lasts to this day.

24

Shi'a

-Also known as Shi-ites; political and theological division within Islam; followers of Ali.
-Supporters of Ali.
-Hostility still lasts to this day.

25

Karbala

-Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi'a resistance to Umayyad caliphate.
-Where Husayn was killed.
-Marked beginning of Shi'a resistance to Umayyad caliphate.

26

Damascus

-Syrian city that was capital of Umayyad caliphate.
-New political center.
-Arab conquest state.

27

mawali

-Non-Arab converts to Islam.
-Had to pay taxes and didn't get shares of the booty.

28

jizya

-Head tax paid by all non-believers in Islamic territories.
-Made mawali more likely to convert.

29

dhimmi

-Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later expanded to Zoroastrians and Hindus.
-People allowed to practice religion freely.
-Made Islamic rule desireable

30

hadiths

-Traditions of the prophet.
-Recordings of Muhammad.
-Many were recorded by women.

31

Abbasid

-Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
-Political dynasty in Islamic culture.
-SPICE

32

Battle of the River Zab

-Victory of Abbasids over Umayyads; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital.
-Changed political structure of Islamic structure.
-Influenced SPICEs of Islamic culture.

33

Baghdad

-Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesphon.
-Change of capital
-Able to control SPICE

34

wazir

-Chief administrative official under the Abbasid caliphate; initially recruited from Persian provinces of empire.
-

35

dhows

-Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.

36

ayan

-The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule.

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