Flashcards in 07: Abbasid Decline and the Spread of Islamic Civilization to South and Southeast Asia Deck (25):
~Triangular sails attached to the masts of dhows by long booms, or yard arms, which extended diagonally high across the fore and aft of the ship.
~Led to increased trade.
~More ideas spread and saved.
~Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problems of succession.
~Attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'a to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problems of succession.
~Left kingdom vulnerable and politically unstable
~One of the great Islamic rulers of the Abbasid era.
~Actually enduring Abbasid caliph.
~Make really rich and fancy.
~Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads.
~Ruled Abbasid empire under title of sultan; retained Abbasids as figureheads.
~Change in political leadership
~Nomadic invaders from central Asia via Persia; staunch Sunnis; ruled in name of Abbasid caliph from mid-11th century.
~Ruled in name of Abbasid caliph from mid-11th century.
~Led empire for 2 centuries.
~Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later used for other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy.
~Brought lost and new ideas back to Europe.
~Muslim leader in the last decades of the 12th century; reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam.
~Reconquered most of the crusader outposts for Islam.
~A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations- strong, weak, dissolute.
~Developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations- strong, weak, dissolute.
~One of greatest historians ans social commentators of all time.
~Written by Firdawsi in late 10th and early 11th centuries; related history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests.
~Related history of Persia from creation to the Islamic conquests.
~Orthodox religious scholars within Islam; pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology; increasingly opposed to non-Islamic ideas and scientific thinking.
~Pressed for a more conservative and restrictive theology.
~Brought extremely conservative approach/sect to Islam.
~Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama.
~Struggled to fuse Greek and Qur'anic traditions.
~Tried to bring peace to opposing cultures.
~Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captures Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph.
~Smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captures Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph.
~New change in structure.
~Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world.
~Responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions
~Large expansion of Mongol influence.
~Ruler of the Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257.
~Responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad in 1257.
~More Mongol rule.
~Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance.
~Established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260.
~Halted Mongol advance,
Muhammad ibn Qasim
~Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire.
~Conquered Sind in India.
Mahmud of Ghazni
~Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
~Gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
~Started cycle of aggression.
Muhammad of Ghur
~Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
~Brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
~Lieutenant of Muhammad of Ghurl established kingdom in India with capital at Delphi; proclaimed himself Sultan of India.
~Hindu groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshiped gods were Shiva and Vishnu.
~Stressed the importance of strong emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration.
~Strengthened denial of all things Islam.
~Celebrated Hindu writer of religious poetry; reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women.
~Reflected openness of bhaktic cults to women.
~Promoted increased rights.
~Muslim mystic; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam.
~Played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam.
~Brought new religion centered on unity between Hindus and Muslims.
~Trading empire centered on Malacca Straits between Malaya and Sumatra; controlled trade of empire; Buddhist government resistant to Muslim missionaries; fall opened up southeast Asia to Muslim conversion.
~Fall opened up southeast Asia to Muslim conversion.
~Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands.
~A center for trade among southeastern Asian islands.
~Spread of culture and ideas