07 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 07 The French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789–1815 Deck (47):
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Old Regime

the political and social system that existed in France before the French Revolution

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estate

one of the three social classes in France before the French Revolution—the First Estate consisting of the clergy; the Second Estate, of the nobility; and the Third Estate, of the rest of the population

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Louis XVI

weak king who came to the French throne in 1774

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Marie Antoinette

unpopular queen; wife of Louis XVI

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Estates-General

an assembly of representatives from all three of the estates, or social classes, in France

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National Assembly

a French congress established by representatives of the Third Estate on June 17, 1789, to enact laws and reforms in the name of the French people

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Tennis Court Oath

a pledge made by the members of France’s National Assembly in 1789, in which they vowed to continue meeting until they had drawn up a new constitution

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Great Fear

a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789

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Legislative Assembly

a French congress with the power to create laws and approve declarations of war, established by the Constitution of 1791

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émigrés

people who leave their native country for political reasons, like the nobles and others who fled France during the peasant uprisings of the French Revolution

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sans-culottes

in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end to food shortages

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Jacobin

member of the Jacobin Club, a radical political organization

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guillotine

a machine for beheading people, used as a means of execution during the French Revolution

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Maximilien Robespierre

revolutionary leader who tried to wipe out every trace of France's past monarchy and nobility

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Reign of Terror

the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

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Napoleon Bonaparte

military leader who seized power in France in 1804

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coup d'état

a sudden seizure of political power in a nation

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plebiscite

a direct vote in which a country’s people have the opportunity to approve or reject a proposal

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lycée

a government-run public school in France

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concordat

a formal agreement—especially one between the pope and a government, dealing with the control of Church affairs

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Napoleonic Code

a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon

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Battle of Trafalgar

an 1805 naval battle in which Napoleon’s forces were defeated by a British fleet under the command of Horatio Nelson

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blockade

the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region

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Continental System

Napoleon’s policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe, intended to destroy Great Britain’s economy

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guerrilla

a member of a loosely organized fighting force that makes surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country

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Peninsular War

a conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleon’s French troops out of Spain

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scorched-earth policy

the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during wartime so that the enemy cannot live off the land

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Waterloo

battle in Belgium that was Napoleon's final defeat

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Hundred Days

the brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power, deposing the French king and again becoming emperor of France

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Congress of Vienna

a series of meetings in 1814–1815, during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon

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Klemens von Metternich

key leader at the Congress of Vienna

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balance of power

a political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat to others

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legitimacy

the hereditary right of a monarch to rule

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Holy Alliance

a league of European nations formed by the leaders of Russia, Austria, and Prussia after the Congress of Vienna

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Concert of Europe

a series of alliances among European nations in the 19th century, devised by Prince Klemens von Metternich to prevent the outbreak of revolutions

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Bastille

a prison in Paris

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Committee of Public Safety

committee led by Robespierre that tried "enemies of the Revolution" and had them executed

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conservatives

in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly wealthy landowners and nobles—who wanted to preserve the traditional monarchies of Europe

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Declaration of the Rights of Man

French revolutionary statement guaranteeing rights such as liberty and property

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radicals

in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans who favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people

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liberals

in the first half of the 19th century, those Europeans—mainly middle-class business leaders and merchants—who wanted to give more political power to elected parliaments

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Versailles

site of the extremely luxurious palace of the kings of France

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7.1 Why were members of the Third Estate dissatisfied with life under the Old Regime?

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7.2 What major reforms did the National Assembly introduce?

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7.3 How did Napoleon become a hero in France?

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7.4 Why was Napoleon’s delay of the retreat from Moscow such a great blunder?

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7.5 What were the three points of Metternich’s plan for Europe?

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