08 Cerebral Vasculature Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 08 Cerebral Vasculature Deck (83):
1

Anterior circulation arises from the ____

Internal carotid artery

2

Terminal branches of the ICAs

Anterior cerebral arteries
Middle cerebral arteries

3

Extends from the origin of the ICA at the level of the CCA bifurcation to the base of the skull

C1 (Cervical sergment)

4

ICA enters the petrous portion of the temporal bone

C2 (Petrous segment)

5

C2 enters via the ____

Carotid canal

6

C2 gives of two branches

Caroticotympanic artery
Vidian artery

7

Vestige of the embryonic hyoid artery

Caroticotympanic artery

8

Artery of the pterygoid canal

Vidian artery

9

C2 segment becomes the ___ as it comes to lie upon the foramen lacerum of the skull

C3 (lacerum segment)

10

Once the C3 reaches the cavernous sinus
Located closely to CN III, IV, V1 just above the sphenoid sinus

C4 (cavernous segment)

11

C4 and C5 (clinoid) form an S-shaped loop that is called the ____

Carotid siphon

12

First intracranial branch of C5
Runs horizontally alongside the optic nerve

C6 (Ophthalmic/Supraclinoid segment)

13

Formed by the curling of C6 and communicates with the posterior circulation via the posterior communicating artery

C7 (communicating or terminal segment)

14

C7 gives rise to

Posterior communicating artery
Anterior choroidal artery

15

Used to be a major branch of the ICA during embryonic development

Posterior communicating artery

16

Supplies the choroid plexus inside the lateral ventricles

Anterior choroidal artery

17

Anastomoses anteriorly with the anterior communicating artery

Anterior cerebral artery

18

ACA branches off to

Pericallosal artery
Callosomarginal artery

19

Gives rise to the anteromedial central arteries, which supply the caudate nucleus and anterior limb of the internal capsule

A1 (precommunicating) segment

20

Gives off the recurrent artery of Heubner, which supplies the anteromeidal caudate nucleus and anteroinferior internal capsule

A2 segment

21

A2 gives of two branches

Orbitofrontal artery
Frontopolar artery

22

A2 then courses up and around the genu of the corpus callosum
Supplies the medial surface of the brain

A3 (pericallosal) segment

23

From the ICA, the artery bifurcates into the ACA and the ___

Middle cerebral artery

24

First segment of MCA
Enters the Sylvian fissure but not after giving off several small perforating arteries

M1 (horizontal) segment

25

Supplies the deep structure of the cerebrum and diencephalon

Lateral striate or lenticulostriate arteries

26

M1 slides underneath the operculum
Supplies the insula

M2 (insular) segment

27

Larger vessels continue on to the inner aspects of the opercula

M3 (opercular) segment

28

Distal branches of the superior and inferior trunks exit the Sylvian fissure
Irrigate the cortex

M4 (cortical or terminal) segment

29

Best seen on lateral view because it is an artery that proceeds to the posterior side and then suddenly disappears

Anterior choroidal artery

30

Arises from the bend in the internal carotid artery just after it enters the dura
Provides the main blood supply to the retina and other surrounding structures

Ophthalmic artery

31

Ophthalmic artery comes from

C6 segment of ICA

32

Associated with speech, hearing and facial sensory and motor functions

MCA

33

Face > arm > leg

MCA infarcts

34

Supplies the most medial portion of the frontal lobes

ACA

35

Leg > arm

ACA infacts

36

Supplies the brainstem, thalamus and the cerebellum

Posterior circulation

37

Arises from the subclavian arteries

Vertebral arteries

38

Before the vertebral arteries enter intervertebral formamen

V1 (pre-foraminal)

39

Once it enters the vertebral column
Can be compromised during the vehicular accidents or whiplash

V2 (foraminal)

40

When it reaches the top of the vertebral column, it will loop around the axis

V3 (C2 to dura)

41

When it enters the dura

V4 (intradural)

42

Before merging as one basilar artery, each vertebral artery will give rise to three branches

Anterior spinal artery
Posterior spinal artery
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery

43

Supplies the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord
Joins its counterpart from the opposite side thus forming a single anterior spinal artery
Runs caudally along the anterior midline of the spinal cord

Anterior spinal artery

44

Paired structures
Runs caudally along the posterolateral aspect of the spinal cord near the dorsal horn
Supplies the posterior 1/3 of the spine

Posterior spinal artery

45

PICA supplies

Posterior inferior quarter of the cerebellum
Dorsolateral aspect of the medulla
Choroid plexus of the 4th ventricle

46

PICA infarction affects

Ambiguous nucleus
Vestibular nuclei
Inferior cerebellar peduncle
Spinal tract of V
Spinothalamic tract

47

Medulla is supplied by

Perforating arteries

48

Fusion of two vertebral arteries
Located in front of the pons

Basilar artery

49

Basilar artery is the major artery that supplied the ____

Brainstem

50

Basilar artery branches

Circumferential pontine arteries
Perforating arteries of the pons
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
Superior cerebellar artery

51

Arteries that encircle the pons

Pontine arteries

52

Pontine arteries supply blood to the:

Posterior inferior quarter of the cerebellum
Internal auditory or labyrinth artery
Circumferential arteries

53

Supplies the lateral pons

Circumferential arteries

54

Perforating arteries of the pons supply blood to the:

Medial pons
Corticospinal tract
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
CN VI

55

A large circumferential artery

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

56

Anterior inferior cerebellar artery supplies blood to the:

Lateral pons
Anterior inferior quarter of the cerebellum

57

Superior cerebellar artery supplies blood to the:

Upper half of the cerebellum
Lower portion of the midbrain
Upper pons

58

Final branch of the basilar artery
Has connection with the anterior circulation via the posterior communicating artery

Posterior cerebral artery

59

PCA supplies the

Posterior portion of the brain

60

Connects the internal carotid artery with the posterior cerebral artery
Divides the PCA into the precommunicating (P1) and post-communicating (P2)

Posterior communicating artery

61

Send perforating arteries to the medial aspect of the midbrain, red nucleus, portions of the corticospinal tract, reticular formation, circumferential arteries

P1 (precommunicating segment)

62

Sends circumferential arteries around the dorsolateral aspect of the midbrain

P2 (post-communicating segment)

63

Built in mechanism that ensures that the circulation of blood in the brain is continuous

Circle of Willis

64

Vessels in the circle of Willis

A1 (precommunicating segment of the anterior cerebral artery)
Anterior communicating artery
Posterior communicating artery
Precommunicating segment

65

Common locations of aneurysms

Anterior communicating - ACA junction
MCA
ICA-Pcom junction

66

Cerebral veins drain into _____ which eventually empty into the ______

Dural venous sinuses
Internal jugular vein

67

Largest venous sinus
Drains blood from the upper brain on both sides
Runs in the midline and extends posterior

Superior sagittal sinus

68

Confluence of sinuses

Torcula herophili

69

Runs along the edge of the falx cerebri
Drains structures around the cingulate gyrus area into the straight sinus

Inferior sagittal sinus

70

Close to the mastoid bone
Ear infection can cause solidification of the blood, leading to thrombosis of venous sinuses

Sigmoid sinus

71

Drains blood from subcortical veins of the brain into the great vein of Galen

Straight sinus

72

Drains the superior sagittal and straight sinuses, and continues on as the sigmoid sinus before draining into the internal jugular vein

Transverse sinus

73

Drains blood from the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins, sphenoparietal sinus, and superficial middle cerebral veins, and through emissary veins to the pterygoid plexus

Cavernous sinus

74

Formed by the union of the 2 internal cerebral veins

Great cerebral vein of Galen

75

Runs along the medial edge of the temporal lobe in close association with the posterior cerebral artery
Drains the occipital cortex

Basal vein of Rosenthal

76

8-12 in number
Drains the superior, lateral and medial surfaces of the cerebral cortex

Superior cerebral veins

77

Within the Sylvian fissure
Drains into the cavernous sinus
Connected to the superior sagittal sinus by the great anastomotic vein of Trolard

Superficial middle cerebral veins

78

Superficial middle cerebral veins are connected with transverse sinus by the _____

Posterior anastomotic vein of Labbe

79

Collection of tight junctions of endothelial cells that prevent substances from freely going in and out of the brain

Blood-brain barrier

80

Specialized areas without BBB
Has fenestrated capillaries

Circumventricular organs

81

Circumventricular organs

Vascular organ of the lamina terminalis
Area postrema
Median eminence
Pineal body
Posterior pituitary
Subfornical organ
Subcomissural organ

82

Contaols vomit induction with certain substances

Area postrema

83

Secretes hormones and has no ducts
Has fenestrated capillaries

Pineal body