08.14 - Control of Breathing (Leffler) - Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 08.14 - Control of Breathing (Leffler) - Questions Deck (34):
1

Which group of neurons sends output to motor neurons

Ventral Respiratory Group

2

2 areas that modulate the Ventral Respiratory Group

Dorsal Respiratory Group (Receives peripheral inputs), PreBotzinger Complex

3

Where is the central respiratory control center located

Medulla

4

Role of the Apneustic Center

Inspiration prolonging

5

Role of Pneumotaxic Center

Respiratory rate regulation - Inhibits medullary inspiratory neurons

6

What is the Hering Breuer Reflex

Inflation of the lungs inhibits inspiration - Vagal fibers from pulmonary stretch receptors - Above 1 L tidal volume

7

Reflex that senses increase of tidal volume above 1 L

Hering Breuer Reflex

8

How does blood pressure affect ventilation

Decrease in blood pressure (baroreceptors) increases ventilation

9

Role of the Gamma-efferent fibers

Detects and responds to changes in lung compliance or airway resistance

10

Detects and responds to changes in lung compliance or airway resistance

Gamma-efferent fibers

11

Coughing due to irritants is carried along which pathway

Vagus

12

Role of J-Receptors

Increases in pulmonary blood volume causes rapid shallow breathing

13

Effect of Increases in pulmonary blood volume

Rapid shallow breathing via J-Receptors

14

Textbook PO2

95 mmHg

15

Textbook PCO2

40 mmHg

16

Alveolar ventilation is regulated in response to ___, ___, and ___

PCO2, pH, and PO2

17

Changes in what affect predominant minute-to-minute changes in Alveolar Ventilation

PaCO2

18

What determines PaCO2?

VCO2 / VA

19

How does bicarb cross BBB?

Bicarb/Cl exchanger (electroneutral)

20

How does Incr. PaCO2 affect HCO3- in medulla

PaCO2 up -> pHmedulla down -> HCO3- enters medullary tissue and CSF --> pHmedulla up --> Decr respiratory drive

21

Primary peripheral chemosenstive cells

Carotid Bodies (afferent to ventral respiratory group)

22

How do carotid bodies sense PO2?

O2-sensitive K+ Channels

23

How do O2-sensitive K Channels signal O2 changes

Decr O2 -> Depolarizes -> Excitatory NT's to Glossopharyngeal

24

What do O2-sensitive K channels specifically sense?

Arterial PO2, not O2 content (doesn't take into account Hb content)

25

Response speed of carotid body O2-sensitive K channels

Fast

26

Differences in specificities of Central Chemosensitive vs Peripheral Chemosensitive centers

Central do not care about O2; Peripheral care about O2, pH, and PaCO2

27

What happens when PaCO2 increases to 50 from 40 mmHg?

Big increase in ventilation

28

How does decr PaO2 affect bicarb in brain

Decr PaO2 -> Incr VA -> Decr PaCO2 -> Incr pHCC -> Bicarb out -> Decr pHCC => Incr VA for PaCO2

29

How does brain increase PAO2 at higher altitude?

Set lower level of PaCO2 via higher level of ventilation

30

How does plasma HCO3- change during progressive incr in VA

Decreases as compensation for respiratory alkalosis

31

Why is it bad to give 100% O2 to patient with chronic lung disease

Their respiratory centers will have reset to compensate and giving high O2 will cause them to shut down

32

Bicarb moves toward ___ at BBB

Lower pH

33

Breathing in Diabetes

Decr insulin -> Incr fat breakdown -> Incr FA's -> Deep rapid breathing

34

Kussmaul Respiration

Decr insulin -> Incr fat breakdown -> Incr FA's -> Deep rapid breathing