08.14 - Respiratory, Ventilatory Failure (Muthiah) - Questions Flashcards Preview

Pulmonology > 08.14 - Respiratory, Ventilatory Failure (Muthiah) - Questions > Flashcards

Flashcards in 08.14 - Respiratory, Ventilatory Failure (Muthiah) - Questions Deck (29):
1

__ is what actually drives breathing, via ___

PCO2, via hydrogen ions

2

High CO2 receptors at baseline means you're workin on ___

Hypoxic Drive

3

Peripheral Chemoreceptors are primarily driven by ____

PaCO2 dissolved in plasma

4

PaCO2 levels in ARDS

If anything, hypocapnea: Hypoxemia driving hyperventilation

5

PaCO2 levels in COPD

Hypercapnea: Obstruction traps/retains CO2

6

PaCO2 levels in Pulmonary Fibrosis

Gradual so no Hyper or Hypo-capnea

7

Ventilatory Failure specifically means

Patient retaining CO2

8

Respiratory Failure means

Hypoxemia and Hypercapnea

9

Most patients with hypercapnic failure also have

hyperoxemic failure

10

Most common mechanism behind hypoxemic failure

V/Q Mismatch

11

Physiologic Shunt

5%

12

ARDS is a classic example of pure

Shunt

13

Heart defects are what classification of Hypoxemic mechanism

Shunt

14

Blood arriving at lungs is usually __ O2 sat

70%

15

Lower mixed venous O2 sat =>

Lower arterial O2 sat

16

2 Causes of lower mixed venous O2

Incr O2 extraction: Exercise and Infection

17

Dead Space Ventilation means there is no

Perfusion at ventilated alveoli

18

2 Mechanisms of Hypercapnic Failure

Decreased minute ventilation relative to demand; Incr dead space ventilation

19

Normal A-a gradient rules out

Intrinsic lung disease

20

When A-a gradient is widened, there is something wrong with

Lungs

21

__ readily corrects with supp O2, ___ does not

V/Q mismatch, Shunt does not

22

5 Causes of Hypoxemia

Decr PiO2; Hypoventilation; V/Q mismatch; Shunt; Diffusion limitation

23

4 causes of Hypercapnic Resp Failure:

Central Hypovent; Neuropathies; Muscle failure; Airway Obstruction

24

3 causes of O2 curve shift to right

Temp, Acidosis, Phosphate-2,3-DPG

25

3 Causes of O2 curve shift to left:

Low temp, Alkalosis, Fetal Hb

26

If patient presents with hypotension, suspect:

infection

27

Fifth Vital Sign

Pulse Oximetry

28

3 Drug Classes to Tx Bronchospasm

Beta 2 Agonist; Anti-cholinergic; LABA's

29

Time to onset of Beta 2 Agonists and Anti-cholinergics

Both about 5-15 minutes