09 Correlative Neuroradiology Flashcards Preview

11 Neurology > 09 Correlative Neuroradiology > Flashcards

Flashcards in 09 Correlative Neuroradiology Deck (57):
1

Transducer produces sound waves that go across the tissue

Ultrasound

2

There are no open windows to acquire images of the brain

Adult brain

3

Provide windows where sound waves can pass through among newborns and fetuses

Fontanelles

4

The workhorse of radiology
Ionized radiation is sent from the device across the subject to the detector on the other end of the machine

CT scan

5

A magnetic field is used

MRI

6

Fluid appears hypointense

T1-weighted

7

Fluid appears hyperintense

T2-weigthed

8

Essentially a T1-weighted image which is prolonged to remove the effects of fluid
Sensitive to brain lesions

Fluid attenuated inversion recovery

9

Form of MRI based on random Brownian motion or water molecules within a volume of tissue

Diffusion weight imaging

10

Substances that have magnetic characteristics are highlighted (e.g. Iron)

Gradient MRi

11

Method of identifying anatomical connections in living human brain
Useful in imaging of association, commissural and projections fibers which connect cortical areas to each other
For evaluation of infarcts and masses with every small cells, of white matter tracts

Diffusion tractography

12

Modality used to evaluate vascular structures

Angiography

13

Gold standard in angiographic studies
Minimally invasive procedure
Requires puncturing a major artery

Digital subtraction angiography (conventional)

14

Use of CT scan after injection of contrast medium
3D rendering can be done to visualize vascular and even bony structures

CT angiography

15

Takes advantage of the speed of vascular flow
Can be evaluated in 3D

MR angiographhy

16

Evaluation of sinuses

MR venograph

17

Separates the precentral gyrus and the postcentral gyrus

Central sulcus

18

Precentral gyrus

Motor

19

Postcentral gyrus

Somatosensory

20

Enters the paracentral lobule anterior to the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus

Central sulcus

21

Central sulcus in T1-weighted MRI

Posterior to the hand knob

22

Separates the temporal lobe from the rest of the brain
Also called lateral sulcus

Sylvian fissure

23

Separates occipital lobe from the parietal lobe

Parieto-occipital sulcus

24

Involved in the coordination of smooth movements
Most common location of hypertensive hemorrhages

Basal ganglia

25

Putamen + globus pallidus

Lentiform nucleus

26

Caudate nucleus + putamen

Striatum

27

Caudate nucleus + lentiform nucleus

Corpus striatum

28

Relay station for visual and auditory functions

Thalamus

29

Area where sensory and motor pathways pass through to the rest of the body
Has a huge role in regulating cardiac, respiratory ad other basic/survival activities

Brainstem

30

Modality used for cranial nerves

T2-weighted MRI

31

Coming out of the midbrain in the interpeduncular cistern
Motor cranial nerve which innervates most of the EOMs

Oculomotor nerve

32

The only cranial nerve that emerges from the dorsal brainstem
Innervates the superior oblique muscle of the orbit

Trochlear nerve

33

Arises from the pons then dives into Meckel's cave before it divides into V1, V2, V3

Trigeminal nerve

34

Innervates the lateral rectus muscle of the orbit

Abducens nerve

35

Pass through internal auditory canal

Facial nerve
Vestibulocochlear nerve

36

Innervates the muscles of facial expression and is responsible for the sense of taste

VII

37

Responsible for sending signals pertaining to audition and balance

VIII

38

Nerves that exit the posterolateral sulcus of the medulla

Glossopharyngeal nerve
Vagus nerve

39

Innervates the intrinsic tongue muscles and other external tongue muscles

Hypoglossal nerve

40

Has two hemispheres and a midline vermis

Cerebellum

41

Cerebellum is connected to brainstem by 3 paired peduncles

Inferior peduncles
Middle peduncles
Superior peduncles

42

CSF production each day

500 mL

43

CSF pathway

Choroid plexus
Lateral ventricles
Third ventricle
Fourth ventricle
Subarachnoid spaces
Arachnoid granulations

44

Between the inner table and the dura

Epidural space

45

Typically due to arterial origin
Due to tears of the middle meningeal artery
Limited by sutures
Biconvex/lentiform shape

Epidural hematoma

46

Between the dura and arachnoid

Subdural space

47

Due to shearing of bridging veins
Not limited by sutures
Limited by dural attachments
Crescent shape

Subdural hematoma

48

Between the arachnoid and pia
An actual space
Follows the shape and dips of the brain

Subarachnoid space

49

Major branches of the aorta going to the head

Innominate or brachiocephalic artery
Common carotid artery
Subclavian artery

50

Supplies the anterior cerebrum/frontal lobe

Anterior cerebral artery

51

Supplies the superior part of the parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe
Major supply to the brain, a blockage here can disturb the normal functions of the motor, speech, and language centers

Middle cerebral artery

52

Supplies occipital lobe, temporal lobe, thalamus

Posterior cerebral artery

53

Largest tracts descending into the spinal cord

Corticospinal tracts

54

Connect the different parts of the same cerebral hemisphere
Cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, superior occipitofrontal fasculus, inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus

Association fibers

55

Connect the two cerebral hemispheres
Corpus callosum, anterior commissure and posterior commissure

Commissural fibers

56

Connect the brain to the rest of central nervous system
Corona radiata, internal capsule, corticospinal tract, corticobulbar tract, corticopontine tract, corticothalamic tract

Projection fibers

57

Imaging modality for white matter tracts

DTI tractography