09 Introduction to Immunology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 09 Introduction to Immunology Deck (47):
1

Fifth century
Immunity to plague

Thucydides

2

Developed vaccine for chickenpox

Edward Jenner

3

A response to any substance recognized as foreign

Immune response

4

Components of immune system

Primary/central/generative lymphoid organs
Secondary/peripheral lymphoid organs

5

Origin of primary lymphoid organs

Bone marrow

6

First to react (~6 hours)
Natural or native immunity
Respond in essentially the same way and magnitude to repeated infections

Innate immunity

7

Physical barrier to infection
Killing of microbes locally produced antibiotics

Physical and chemical barriers

8

Principal cellular component of innate immunity

NK cells

9

Large number of distinct plasma proteins that react with one another to opsonize pathogens and induce a series of inflammatory response that help fight infection

Complement system

10

Coating of pathogen by antibodies and/or complement protein so that it is more readily taken up and destroyed by phagocytic cells

Opsonization

11

Three pathways of complement system

Classical pathway
Alternative pathway
Lectin pathway

12

Antibody-triggered pathway

Classical pathway

13

Can be activated by the presence of pathogen alone

Alternative pathway

14

Activated by lectin-type proteins that recognize and bind to carbohydrates on pathogen surfaces

Lectin pathway

15

Regulate and coordinate activities of the cells
Act mainly as signaling proteins

Cytokines

16

Stimulated by exposure to infectious agents
Increase in magnitude and defensive capabilities with each successive exposure to a particular microbe

Adaptive immunity

17

Exquisite specificity for distinct molecules
Ability to remember and respond more vigorously to repeated exposures to the same microbe

Adaptive immunity

18

Ensures that distinc Ags elicit specific responses

Specificity

19

Enables immune system to respond to a large variety of Ags

Diversity

20

Leads to enhanced responses to repeated exposures to the same Ag

Memory

21

Increases number of Ag-specific lymphocytes to keep pace with microbes

Clonal expansion

22

Generates responses that are optimal for defense vs different types of microbes

Specialization

23

Allows immune system to respond to newly encountered Ags

Contraction & homeostasis

24

Prevents injury to the host during responses to foreign Ags

Nonreactivity to self

25

Mediated by antibodies produced by B cells
Abs recognized microbe, neutralize its infectivity, target them for elimination
Extra cellular microbes and toxins
Immunity transferred by transferring cells, secreted antibody

Humoral immunity

26

Mediated by T cells
Destruction of microbes residing in phagocytes or killing of infected cells to eliminate reservoirs
Intracellular microbes such as viruses and some bacteria

Cell mediated/cellular

27

Specifically recognize and respond to foreign antigens
Mediators or cellular and humoral immunity
Distinct subtypes with different ways of responding to different antigens

Lymphocytes

28

Captures antigen and displays them to lymphocytes

Antigen presenting cells

29

Most specialized APCs

Dendritic cells

30

Immunized individual plays an active role in responding to antigen
Individual is exposed to the microbe or toxin
Formation of antibodies

Active immunity

31

Transfer of serum or lymphocytes from an immunized individual
Immunity despite not being exposed to antigen
Receive antibodies

Passive immunity

32

Ag-specific clones of lymphocytes develop before and independent of exposure to Ag

Colonial selection hypothesis

33

Activation of T cells
Elimination of extra cellular microbes

Cell mediated immunity

34

Growth factor for activated lymphocytes, stimulating their proliferation

IL-2 from Helper T cells

35

Activation of B cells
Elimination of extra cellular microbes

Humoral immunity

36

Study of untoward reaction produced by immune mechanism
Primarily exist for protection but may be harmful

Immunopathology

37

Immunopathologic classification

Gell & Coombs classification
Sell classification

38

Gell & Coombs classification

1 Immediate Hypersensitivity
2 Cytotoxic Reactions
3 Serum Sickness
4 Delayed Hypersensitivity

39

IgE-mediated
Anaphylaxis
Release of mediators from mast cells or basophils

Type 1

40

Ab-mediated
IgG, IgM, IgA
Directed to cell surface Ags of RBCs, PMNs, platelets, glandular epithelial cells, mucosal surface cells and Ags on tissue
Natural or modified cell surface Ags or haptens attached to cell surface

Type 2

41

3 categories of Type 2

Opsonization
Induction of complement-mediated lysis
Cytotoxicity mediated by ADCC

42

IgM, IgG, activated complement, neutrophils
Reactions usually start 10-14 days after exposure

Type 3

43

Sensitized Helper T cells
Rheumatoid arthritis

Type 4

44

Sell pathogenic mechanism of immune reactions

Allergic reaction
Cytotoxic or cytolytic antibody reactions
Immune complex reactions
Delayed hypersensitivity
Inactivation/activation of antibody reactions
T cell cytotoxic reactions
Granulomatous reactions

45

Target cell stimulation (thyroiditis)
Negative signaling or ligand blockade

Inactivation/activation antibody reactions

46

Caused by T cells and NK cells
T cell infiltration of blood vessels and alveoli in chronic asthma
Secondary damage after viral infections by helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells

T cell cytotoxic reactions

47

Focal collections of inflammatory cells in tissues
Macrophages, histiocytes, epitheloid cells, giant cells
Attempt of the body to wall-off difficult pathogens
TB, leprosy, parasitic diseases, berylliosis, asbestosis

Granulomatous reactions