Flashcards in 1-0 - Language Development Studies on Dr. Ingram's Offspring Deck (39):
When was the oldest known diary study?
What is a diary study?
When a parent or caretaker writes down everything child says that is new, novel, or interesting
What is the name of Dr. Ingram's oldest daughter?
How did Dr. Ingram study Jennika's speech
He kept a diary writing down each word + transcription
How did Dr. Ingram organize all of Jennika's information?
He first made a large alphabetical sheet with pen and paper
Later, he made a more elaborate sheet to separate new words from old words and old pronunciations from new ones
What intrigued Dr. Ingram about Jennika's lexicon?
Her use of homonyms
"Beer" and "bear" were pronounced the same
What are homonyms?
Two different words pronounced the same way
During what age span did Dr. Ingram collect data on Jennika?
1 year 3 months to 2 years 3 months
What article did Dr. Ingram write about Jennika's data?
"On Children's Homonyms"
What was the point of "On Children's Homonyms"?
It was a disagreement with the idea that children use more and more homonyms as their language progresses
Dr. Ingram hypothesized that this would render the child less and less intelligible
One child in "On Children's Homonyms" did not advance in articulation skill and increased their homonym use. What was the most likely reason for this?
What was the name of the child whose homonym use grew in "On Children's Homonyms"?
What were the names of the three children in "On Children's Homonyms"?
How did the two children's (not Hildegard) language progress in "On Children's Homonyms"?
Their homonym use dropped off as their speech became more advanced
What is the name of Dr. Ingram's older son?
How did Dr. Ingram study Daniel's language development?
Bought a tape recorder and recorded him every 2 weeks for 30 minutes
During what age range did Dr. Ingram study Daniel's language development?
1 year 6 months to age 3
What was the benefit to recording Daniel's speech on a regular basis versus the diary approach used with Jennika?
It more systematic - or a longitudinal study
What is a weakness of diary studies?
You only write down what appears interesting
How long did it take to transcribe each of Daniel's recordings?
3-12 hours depending on the detail being used
How were the transcripts written in the Daniel study?
First transcriptions were written by hand
Later transcripts were typed
Transcripts were run through a computer program to perform analysis
What article was written using the information gathered from Daniel?
"Transition From Early Symbols to Syntax"
What was the focus of "Transition From Early Symbols to Syntax"?
The emergence of first words
What are the names of Dr. Ingram's younger children?
Samuel & Rachel
How did Dr. Ingram study the language development of Samuel & Rebecca?
Recorded 1st 100 words
But only words that both he and his wife were totally clear on
What was Dr. Ingram trying to prove in the study of Samuel & Rebecca?
That the Frame Content Theory was wrong
How easy was it to publish the Samuel & Rebecca paper?
Most in the speech language supported the theory the paper was attacking so paper was rejected
How many years did it take to publish the Samuel & Rebecca paper?
When was the Samuel & Rebecca paper published?
Who published the Samuel & Rebecca paper?
A former grad student
Did Dr. Ingram perform the Samuel/Rebecca study alone?
No, he partnered with his wife
What is the Frame Content Theory?
That infants learn their first words by focusing on the easiest CV combinations and work their way outward to more difficult combinations
What is the central unit of speech production?
CV (Consonant Vowel)
Speech is combination of ______ and ______.
What are the easiest CV combinations using /b/, /d/, /g/, /i/, /a/, & /u/?
What do /ba/, /di/, & /gu/ have to to with Frame Content Theory?
FCT says that when babies start forming words, they will show a preference for these three syllables
What did Dr. Ingram see with /ba/, /di/, /gu/?
That these are often seen in babbling but that the consonant was often paired with other vowels in first words
These three are simplier but it doesn't stop a baby from using the other combinations
What is the difference between token frequency and type frequency?
Token frequency = how many times words were said or the total number of words uttered (so "cat", "cat", "cat", dog = 4 words)
Type frequency = how many unique words were uttered (so "cat", "cat", "cat", dog = 2 words)