1-0 - Language Development Studies on Dr. Ingram's Offspring Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1-0 - Language Development Studies on Dr. Ingram's Offspring Deck (39):
0

When was the oldest known diary study?

16th century

1

What is a diary study?

When a parent or caretaker writes down everything child says that is new, novel, or interesting

2

What is the name of Dr. Ingram's oldest daughter?

Jennika

3

How did Dr. Ingram study Jennika's speech

He kept a diary writing down each word + transcription

4

How did Dr. Ingram organize all of Jennika's information?

He first made a large alphabetical sheet with pen and paper

Later, he made a more elaborate sheet to separate new words from old words and old pronunciations from new ones

5

What intrigued Dr. Ingram about Jennika's lexicon?

Her use of homonyms

"Beer" and "bear" were pronounced the same

6

What are homonyms?

Two different words pronounced the same way

7

During what age span did Dr. Ingram collect data on Jennika?

1 year 3 months to 2 years 3 months

8

What article did Dr. Ingram write about Jennika's data?

"On Children's Homonyms"

9

What was the point of "On Children's Homonyms"?

It was a disagreement with the idea that children use more and more homonyms as their language progresses

Dr. Ingram hypothesized that this would render the child less and less intelligible

10

One child in "On Children's Homonyms" did not advance in articulation skill and increased their homonym use. What was the most likely reason for this?

Articulation issues

11

What was the name of the child whose homonym use grew in "On Children's Homonyms"?

Hildegard

12

What were the names of the three children in "On Children's Homonyms"?

Philip

Jennika

Hildegard

13

How did the two children's (not Hildegard) language progress in "On Children's Homonyms"?

Their homonym use dropped off as their speech became more advanced

14

What is the name of Dr. Ingram's older son?

Daniel

15

How did Dr. Ingram study Daniel's language development?

Bought a tape recorder and recorded him every 2 weeks for 30 minutes

16

During what age range did Dr. Ingram study Daniel's language development?

1 year 6 months to age 3

17

What was the benefit to recording Daniel's speech on a regular basis versus the diary approach used with Jennika?

It more systematic - or a longitudinal study

18

What is a weakness of diary studies?

You only write down what appears interesting

19

How long did it take to transcribe each of Daniel's recordings?

3-12 hours depending on the detail being used

20

How were the transcripts written in the Daniel study?

First transcriptions were written by hand

Later transcripts were typed

Transcripts were run through a computer program to perform analysis

21

What article was written using the information gathered from Daniel?

"Transition From Early Symbols to Syntax"

22

What was the focus of "Transition From Early Symbols to Syntax"?

The emergence of first words

23

What are the names of Dr. Ingram's younger children?

Samuel & Rachel

24

How did Dr. Ingram study the language development of Samuel & Rebecca?

Recorded 1st 100 words

But only words that both he and his wife were totally clear on

25

What was Dr. Ingram trying to prove in the study of Samuel & Rebecca?

That the Frame Content Theory was wrong

26

How easy was it to publish the Samuel & Rebecca paper?

Hard!

Most in the speech language supported the theory the paper was attacking so paper was rejected

27

How many years did it take to publish the Samuel & Rebecca paper?

5 years

28

When was the Samuel & Rebecca paper published?

2013

29

Who published the Samuel & Rebecca paper?

A former grad student

30

Did Dr. Ingram perform the Samuel/Rebecca study alone?

No, he partnered with his wife

31

What is the Frame Content Theory?

That infants learn their first words by focusing on the easiest CV combinations and work their way outward to more difficult combinations

32

What is the central unit of speech production?

CV (Consonant Vowel)

33

Speech is combination of ______ and ______.

Consonants

Vowels

34

What are the easiest CV combinations using /b/, /d/, /g/, /i/, /a/, & /u/?

/ba/

/di/

/gu/

35

What do /ba/, /di/, & /gu/ have to to with Frame Content Theory?

FCT says that when babies start forming words, they will show a preference for these three syllables

36

What did Dr. Ingram see with /ba/, /di/, /gu/?

That these are often seen in babbling but that the consonant was often paired with other vowels in first words

These three are simplier but it doesn't stop a baby from using the other combinations

37

What is the difference between token frequency and type frequency?

Token frequency = how many times words were said or the total number of words uttered (so "cat", "cat", "cat", dog = 4 words)

Type frequency = how many unique words were uttered (so "cat", "cat", "cat", dog = 2 words)

38

Does Dr. Ingram see language as being driven by the simplicity of pronunciation?

No. He sees it as being driven on how many words can be made