1-25 Superficial Back Flashcards Preview

Marrow and Movement > 1-25 Superficial Back > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1-25 Superficial Back Deck (48):
1

Teres Minor

Origin: middle part of lateral border of scapula

Insertion: inferior facet of greater tubercle of humerus

Innervation: axillary nerve

Action: laterally rotate arm, help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

2

Rhomboid Minor

Origin: nuchal ligament; spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae

Insertion: traingular area at medial end of scapular spine

Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve

Action: retract scapular and rotate it to depress glenoid cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall

3

Latissmus Dorsi

Origin: spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, and inferior 3/4 rbis

Insertion: floor of intertubercular sulcus of humerus

Innervation: thoracodorsal nerve

Action: extends, adducts, and medially rotates humerus, raises body towards arms during climbing

4

Levator Scapulae

Origin: posterior tubercles of transverse processes of c1-c4 vertebrae

Insertion: medial border of scapula superior to root of spine

Innervation: dorsal scapular and cervical nerves

Action: elevates scapula and tilts glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula

5

Supraspinatus

Origin: supraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion: superior facet of greater tubercule of humerous

Innervation: suprascapular nerve

Action: initiates and assists deltoid in abduction of arm nd acts with other rotator cuff muscles

6

Serratus Posterior Inferior

Origin: spinous processes and supraspinous ligaments of T11-L2

Insertion: posterior aspect of ribs 9-12

Innervation: anterior primary rami

Action: assists forced expiration

7

Rhomboid Major

Origin: spinous processes of T2-T5 vertebrae

Insertion: medial border of scapular from level of spine to inferior angle

Innervation: dorsal scapular nerve

Action: retract scapular and rotate it to depress glenoid cavity; fix scapula to thoracic wall

8

Teres Major

Origin: posterior surface of inferior angle of scapula

Insertion: medial lip of intertubercular groove of humerus

Innervation: lower subscapular nerve (c5-c6)

Action: adducts and medially rotates the arm

9

Serratus Posterior Superior

Origin: spinous proces and supraspinous ligaments of C7-T2

Insertion: posterior aspect of ribs 2-5

Innervation: anterior primary rami

Action: assists forced inspiration

10

Infraspinatus

Origin: infraspinous fossa of scapula

Insertion: middle facet of greater tubercle of humerus

Innervation: suprascapular nerve

Action: laterally rotate arm; help hold humeral head in glenoid cavity of scapula

11

Trapezius

Origin: medial third of superior nuchal line, external occiptal protuberance, nuchal ligament, spinous processes of C7- T12 vertebrae

Insertion: lateral third of cavicle, acromion and spine of scapula

Innervation: spinal accessory nerve (CN XI) and C3/C4 nerves

Action: descending part elevates, ascending part depresses, all parts retract scapula; descending and ascending parts rotate glenoid cavity superiorly

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13

Which two vertebral regions are secondary curavatures

cervical and lumbar

14

Which two vertebral regions are primary curvatures?

thoracic and sacral

15

Which two structures can get compressed as a result of an anterior dislocation?

- Axillary nerve (can cause numbness/tingling)

- posterior circumflex humeral artery (can cause significant bleeding)

16

What are the four muscles that make up the rotator cuff?

Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Supscapularis

17

Subacromial Bursitis

- a supraspinatus tendon rupture can cause inflammatory fluid to fill the subacromial bursa

- bursa can become inflamed and distend/spread

- as a result the pain will spread beyond the region of injury

18

spinal stenosis

- ligamentum flavum ossifies and calcifies over time, resulting in a narrowed vertebral canal/foramen

19

spina bifida

- improper or incomplete closing of neural tube
- occulta form: minor, hairy patch due to migration of neural crest cells
- meningocele form: more severe, caused by spinal cord extruding out when vertebrae doesn't form completely

20

scoliosis

lateral deviation of the spine away from midline symmetry

21

myotome

muscle portion of body that a specific pair of spinal nerves innervate

22

lordosis

overaccentuated primary curvature (thoracic/sacral)

23

ligamentum flavum

- connects laminae of adjacent vertebrae 
- causes spinal stenosis

24

kyphosis

overaccentuated secondary curavature (cervical/lumbar)

25

How many vertebrae are there in total?

How many vertebrae are in each section?

- 33 vertebrae total
- 7 cervical
- 12 thoracic
- 5 lumbar
- 5 sacral
- 4 coccygeal

26

Describe how shingles and dermatomes are connected?

- Shingles virus remains dormant in the dorsal root ganglion

- Virus can reactivate during times of stress or older age

- The whole nerve of the dorsal root ganglion infected will be inflamed, resulting in blisters along the specific dermatome of the dorsal root ganglion affected

27

dermatome

band of skin that a specific pair of spinal nerves innervate

28

Deltoid

Origin: lateral third of clavicle; acromion and spine of scapula

Insertion: deltoid tuberosity of humerus

Innervation: axillary nerve

Action: clavicular part flexes and medially rotates arm, acromial part abducts arm, spinal part extends and laterally rotates arm

29

Characteristics of Lumbar Vertebrae

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Characteristic features of thoracic vertebrae

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Characteristic features of cervical vertebrae

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32

Bursa

- sac of synovial membrane filled with synovial  fluid

- allows joint to move friction-free against skin or a tendon

- provides mechanical discontinuity: as a joint moves, the side of the bursa touching the joint moves, but the side of the bursa touching skin/tendon does not

33

Anastomoses and Collateral Circulation of Scapular Blood Circulation

- dorsal scapular, suprascapular, circumflex scapular and thorcodorsal artery anastamose on the infra spinous fossa

- if one artery supply gets occluded, blood flow can reverse direction and supply area via another artery

34

A tear in which muscle is most commonly associated with rotator cuff injuries?

Supraspinatus

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