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Flashcards in 1-3 Deck (51):
1

three parts of the biosphere

lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere

2

difference between biotic and abiotic

biotic is living and abiotic is non living

3

what is dynamic equilibrium

any system where changes are continuously occurring but the components have the ability to adapt

4

difference between population and community

population - group of same organisms
community - more than one species

5

what is ecosystem

the functional unit of the biosphere

6

define biodiversity

number of species in an ecosystem

7

a food chain is

a step by step sequence linking organism that feed on each other

8

define endangered, extirpated and threatened

endangered - close to being extinct
extirpated- no longer existing in a certain area
threatened - likely to become endangered

9

define indicator species

species sensitive to small changes and can provide a warning to the ecosystem

10

difference between herbivores, carnivores and omnivores

herbivores eat plants, carnivores eat other animals, omnivores eat both

11

what is detritus

waste from plants/animals and are critical in recycling of matter

12

decomposers are

organisms that break down detritus to get materials and release nutrients

13

trophic level

categories of living things defined by how it gains its energy

14

what are the four trophic levels in order

autotrophs, primary consumer, secondary

15

what are heterotrophs

organisms that can’t make their own food

16

food web

step by step sequence of who eats who

17

what is photosynthesis

the process where green plants use energy from the sun, co2, water to produce carbohydrates

18

what is cellular respiration

the process by which cells break down glucose into co2, water and release energy

19

what is chemosynthesis

non photosynthetic organisms convert inorganic chemical to organic compound

20

what are chemoautotrophs

organisms that require another energy course besides the sun to make nutrients

21

what are the two laws of thermodynamics

1. energy can be transformed but not destroyed or created
2. energy is lost or converted into an unusable form

22

what are the 3 ecological pyramids

pyramid of numbers, biomass, energy

23

what is biomass a measure of

measure of stored energy

24

what are monocultures

cultivation of a single species

25

the parts of the water cycle

precipitation, evaporation, condensation, transpiration

26

precipitation

water reaching earth

27

water cycle

movement of water through the biosphere

28

evaporation

when surface water is absorbed by the suns energy and becomes water vapour and rises up to the atmosphere

29

condensation

risen water vapour is at a temp low enough to condensate into tiny droplets that are light of enough to stay in atmosphere

30

transpiration

loss of water through plant leaves

31

where does fresh water come from

ground water and surface water

32

percolation

when water filters downward because of gravity

33

water table

top level of the region below the ground that is saturated with water

34

leaching

water carries down organic matter and minerals to the lower levels of soil

35

acid rain

when water droplets combine with chemicals to form acids

36

what is the carbon cycle

cycle of matter in which carbon atoms movie from an inorganic to organic form and then back to inorganic

37

combustion

the burning process that releases co2

38

where can inorganic compound be found

atmosphere, dissolved in water for photosynthesis use, earth crust - volcanos

39

how is organic carbon made

in low oxygen bogs or bottom of ocean carbon atoms get locked away in peat/decay and piled up with sediment for a long time to form fossil fuels or coal

40

albedo effect

extent to which a surface can reflect radiation

41

high albedo means____
lower albedo means____

less energy absorbed
more energy absorbed

42

what is the oxygen cycle

movement of oxygen from living things to the atmosphere through photosynthesis then back through cellular respiration

43

nitrogen cycle

movement of nitrogen through ecosystems, the soil and atmosphere

44

nitrogen fixation

two processes in which atmospheric/ dissolves nitrogen is converted into nitrate

45

two process for nitrogen fixation

lightening - nitrogen reacts with oxygen to produce nitrates
bacteria in soil - modules on legume roots

46

dentrification

nitrates are converted into nitrites and back to nitrogen gas

47

phosphorus cycle

cycling of phosphorus between biotic and abiotic components

48

two parts of the phosphorus cycle

long term with rocks of the earth and short term with living organisms

49

long term phosphorus cycle

eroded phosphate rocks go to ocean where used to make shells of organisms and when they die remains are covered by sediment which turn to rocks

50

short term phosphorus cycle

wastes are decomposed and release phosphate

51

nutrients

chemicals essential to living things