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What is Acanthosis?

An increase in cells in the epidermis especially in the stratum spinosum. It is often in response to various chronic stimuli.


What is the difference between Orthokeratotic and Parakeratotic hyperkeratosis?

Orthokeratotic = lack nuclei
Parakeratotic = retain nuclei


What is Dyskeratosis?

Premature keratinisation of cells in the epidermis. eg Zinc responsive dermatosis


What is the difference between hydropic degeneration, oedema and ballooning degeneration of the epidermis?

Hydropic = intracellular fluid accumulation inside basal cells
Oedema = fluid accumulation between cells/extracellular
Ballooning = intracellular fluid accumulation in superficial cells


What is Acantholysis? Give an example of a disease it is seen in.

Disruption of intracellular junction (desmosomes) between keratinocytes. Histologically you seen free floating keratinocytes in fluid. Grossly - vesicles and pustules. Eg. Pemphigus diseases.


What is the difference between folliculitis and furunculosis?

Folliculitis = inflammation of hair follicle
Furunculosis = rupture of follicle wall


What is Ergot's affect on the skin?

Ergot is a fungus that causing peripheral arteriolar vasoconstriction and hence ischemic necrosis.


What is a "Hotspot"

Pyotraumatic dermatitis
self trauma secondary to prutitis
Moist areas, especially in dogs with long hair living in hot, humid climates.


Name some viruses that effect the skin.

Poxviruses, parapoxviruses (Contagious ecthyma), Swine pox, Herpesviruses, papillomaviruses.


If all dogs carry demodex, why do only some get demodecosis?

Immunosuppression allows demodex to proliferate out of control = demodecosis. May be due to a genetic T cell deficiency or secondary immunosuppression.


What is urticaria?

Oedema of superficial dermis, "hives"


What is angioedema?

Oedema of deep dermis and subcutaneous


What is Pemphigus?

A group of autoimmune disorders that cause the animal to produce autoantibodies against desmosomes. This causes vesicle and bulla formation.


What endocrine disorders often cause alopecia?

Hypothyroidism, Hyperadrenocorticism and Hyperestrogenism.


What effect does Hypothyroidism, Hyperadrenocorticism and Hyperestrogenism have on the skin?

Non-pruritic, bilaterally symmetrical alopecia. Secondary infections are common.