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Flashcards in 1. Applied Anatomy and Physiology Deck (44):

What is the name of the system that describes the muscles and the skeleton?

Musculoskeletal System


What are the 4 types of bones? Give 2 examples of each.

Flat - Ribs, Clavicle, Cranium, Jaw, Pelvis, Sacrum, Scapula
Long - Femur, Tibia, Fibula, Radius, Humerus, Ulna, Phalanges
Short - Carpals, Tarsals
Irregular - Vertebrae, Patella


What are the six functions of the skeleton?

Support - holds, tissues and muscles up.
Movement - Allows movement when our muscles contract.
Protection - Protects vital organs e.g brain that could cause major health issues
Shape and Structure - Provides something for our muscles to attach to.
Blood cell production - takes place in the bone marrow, important for respiration.
Storage of Minerals - essential for major body functions


What are articulating bones?

Articulating Bones: bones that meet at a joint to provide movement


Name the articulating bones that join together at 5 joints?

Shoulder - scapula, clavicle, humerus.
Elbow - Humerus, radius, ulna
Hip - Pelvis, Femur
Knee - Femur, Patella, Fibula, Tibia
Ankle - Tibia, Fibula, Talus


What is a synovial joint?

Synovial Joint: An area of the body where two or more articulating bones meet.


What are tendons?

Tendons: Very strong, non-elastic cords that join muscle to the bone.


What is the bursae?

Bursae: a sac filled with liquid, floating inside the joint. It reduces friction between the tendon and the bone.


What is the cartilage?

Cartilage: a tough, but flexible tissue that acts as a buffer between the bones, preventing them from rubbing together and causing friction.


What is the joint capsule?

Joint Capsule: a tissue that stops synovial fluid from escaping and encloses, supports and holds the bones together.


What are ligaments?

Ligaments: bands of elastic fibre that attach to the bone, keeping the joint stable by restricting movement.


What are synovial fluid and synovial membrane?

Synovial Fluid: a clear and slippery liquid that lubricates the joint and stops the bones from rubbing together.
Synovial Membrane: the lining inside of the joint capsule that secretes synovial fluid.


What are the 2 types of joints?

Ball and socket joints
Hinge joints


What are the 7 types of movement and define them?

Extension: increase in angle of bones and the joint
Flexion: decrease in angle of bones at the joint
Adduction: movement of bone or limb towards the midline of the body
Abduction: movement of bones or limb away from the midline of the body
Rotation: a circular movement around a joint
Dorsiflexion: movement at the ankle joint that flexes the foot upwards and decreases the angle at the ankle joint
Plantar flexion: movement at the ankle joint that points the toes and increases the angle at the ankle joint


What are the major muscles that operate at 5 joints?

Shoulder - deltoid, trapezius, pectorals, latissimus dorsi, biceps, triceps, rotator cuff
Elbow - biceps, triceps
Hip - gluteals, hip flexors
Knee - quadriceps, hamstring
Ankle - tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius


Describe isotonic contractions?

Isotonic Contractions: a muscle contractions where the muscle changes length when it contracts, resulting in limb movement. Can be concentric or eccentric.


Describe isometric contractions?

Isometric Contractions: a muscle contraction where the length of the muscle does not change when it contracts. There is no limb movement as a result.


What is the cardio-respiratory system?

Cardio-Respiratory System: the system of the cardiovasular and respiratory systems working together


What is gaseous exchange?

Gaseous Exchange: the process of oxygen from the air in the alveoli moves into the blood in the capillaries, while carbon dioxide moves from the blood in the capillaries into the air in the alveoli.


What is haemoglobin?

Haemoglobin: the protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen (as oxyhaemoglobin) and carbon dioxide around the body.


What is oxyhaemoglobin?

Oxyhaemoglobin: a chemical formed when haemoglobin bonds with oxygen.


What is the diffusion pathway?

Diffusion Pathway: the distance travelled during diffusion.


What is inspiration?

Inspiration: the process of breathing in.


What is exhalation?

Exhalation: the process of breathing out.


What happens when we breathe in?

- Chest cavity changes shape and size.
- The diaphragm flattens and moves downwards.
- The intercostal muscles contract and move the ribs up.
- This pushes out the sternum.
- Reduces air pressure and causes air to be sucked in.


What is expiratory reserve volume?

Expiratory Reserve Volume: the amount of air that can be forced out after tidal volume, this decreases during exercise.


What is inspiratory reserve volume?

Inspiratory Reserve Volume: the amount of air that can be forced in after tidal volume, this increases during exercise.


What is residual volume?

Residual Volume: the amount of air that remains in the lungs after maximal expiration. There is no change in residual volume during exercise.


What is tidal volume?

Tidal Volume: the normal amount of air inhaled or exhaled per breath. Tidal volume increases with exercise.


What is vital capacity?

Vital Capacity: the largest volume of air that can be forcibly expired after the deepest inspiration.


What are the 3 types of blood vessels?



Describe the pathway of blood?

- Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium from the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava.
- Passes through a valve into the right ventricle.
- Pulmonary artery pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
- Gaseous exchange occurs.
- The pulmonary vein transports oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium.
- It is then pumped to the left ventricle.
- It is ejected from the heart and pumped round the body via the aorta


Describe systole and diastole?

Systole: the phase of heartbeat when the chambers of the heart contract and empty of blood; when blood is ejected of the heart.
Diastole: the phase of the heartbeat when the chambers of the heart relax and fill with blood.


What is our pulse?

Pulse: the rhythmic throbbing that you can feel as your arteries pump blood around the body.


What is vasoconstriction?

Vasoconstriction: the narrowing of the internal diameter of a blood vessel to decrease blood flow. The arteries constrict during exercise so that less blood is delivered to inactive areas.


What is vasodilation?

Vasodilation: the widening of the internal diameter of blood vessel to increase blood flow, The arteries dilate during exercise so that more blood is delivered to active areas.


How do you calculate cardiac output?

Cardiac Output: stroke volume x heart rate


What is the equation for aerobic respiration?

glucose + oxygen → water + carbon dioxide


What is the equation for anaerobic respiration?

glucose → lactic acid


What is EPOC?

Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen: the amount of oxygen needed to be consumed after exercise.


What are DOMS?

Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness: the pain you feel in your muscles the day after exercise.


What are the immediate effects of exercise?

- Heart rate will increase
- Body will get hotter
- Sweat more/skin will redden
- Breathe more often/deeper


What are the short term effects of exercise?

- Muscle cramps
- Tired/fatigue
- Light headed
- Nauseous
- Muscles will ache


What are the long term effects of exercise?

- Body will change shape
- Resting heart rate will be lower
- Heart will increase in size
- Muscle size will increase
- Stamina will improve
- Improvement of COF