(1) Chapter 3 - Tissue Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (1) Chapter 3 - Tissue Deck (56):
1

cell junction

contact points between plasma membranes of tissue cells (5 types)

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tight junctions

prevent leakage; lines stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder

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adherens junctions

prevent epithelial tissue from separating during contractile activities; intestines

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desmosomes

prevent epidermal cells from separating under tension and pulling apart during contractions; epidermis and cardiac muscle cells

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hemidesmosomes

only anchor epithelium to basement membrane, not cell to adjacent cells; no given locations

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gap junctions

connexons attach two adjacent cell to form a channel for the transfer of nutrients, wastes, and nerve/muscle impulses; neurons and their junctions with other tissues

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description of epithelium

cell arranged in continuous sheets with little intracellular space, sheets form selective barriers, products released to free surface.

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apical surface

the free, outermost surface of epithelial tissue

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basal surface

the innermost layer of epithelial tissue, closest to basement membrane

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basement membrane (epithelial)

avascular, high capacity for mitosis which provides for new layers of epithelium, numerous cell junction to securely attach surrounding cells

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simple squamous epithelium

lines cardiovascular and lymphatic system; assists with filtration, diffusion, and secretion

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simple cuboidal epithelium

lines kidney tubules, lens, retina, and surface of ovaries

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nonciliated simple columnar epithelium

GI tract, and most ducts of glands

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ciliated simple columnar epithelium

uterine tubes, uterus, and paranasal sinuses

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ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium

airways of upper respiratory tract; contains goblet cells which secrete mucus.

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stratified squamous epithelium

keratinized forms tissue of outer skin, hair, and nails; nonkeratinized lines wet surfaces like inner mouth, vagina, tongue, and part of pharynx.

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stratified cuboidal epithelium

adult sweat glands, esophageal glands, and part of male urethra (least common epithelium)

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stratified columnar epithelium

parts of urethra, esophageal glands, anal mucous membranes, and conjunctiva of eye

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transitional epithelium

lines urinary bladder and portions of urethra and ureters; allows urinary organs to stretch without leaking or rupturing

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glandular epithelium

specialized epithelium organized to secrete substances into ducts onto a surface, or into the blood

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endocrine glands

glands without ducts - pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thymus - hormone products dissipate

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exocrine glands

glands with ducts - sweat, oil, cerumen, and salivary glands

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eccrine glands

aka mecrocrine; salivary glands and pancreas (most common classification)

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apocrine glands

mammary glands

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holocrine glands

sweat glands of the skin

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epithelial tissue

covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body cavities, and ducts, forms glands; 4 types of cells

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connective tissue

protects and supports the body and organs by binding them together, storing energy reserves, and providing immunity; 6 types of cells

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muscular tissue

cells are specialized for contraction and generation of force and heat; 3 major types of cells

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nervous tissue

detect and respond to changes and conditions in internal and external environment; activates muscle contraction and glandular production; 2 major types of cells

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fibroblasts

CT - most numerous, secretes fibers and components of the ground substance of the extracellular matrix

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macrophages

CT - arise from monocytes (WBCs), engulfs bacteria and cellular debris via phagocytosis

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plasma cells

CT - arise from B lymphocytes (WBCs); secretes antibodies, produces plasma; found in abundance in GI and respiratory tracts, salivary glands, lymph nodes, spleen, and red bone marrow

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mast cells

CT - produces histamines, can ingest and kill bacteria

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adipocytes

CT - adipose cells that store energy as triglycerides; found deep to skin and surrounds organs like the heart and kidneys.

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white blood cells

CT - already a lot but will increase under certain conditions

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areolar CT

LOOSE; provides elasticity and strength to the subcutaneous layer of skin

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adipose CT

LOOSE; stores fat in the subcutaneous layer of skin and around the heart

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reticular CT

LOOSE; found in lymph nodes

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regular CT

DENSE; makes up tendons (muscle to bone) and ligaments (bone to bone)

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irregular CT

DENSE; reticular region of dermis, fibrous pericardium

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elastic CT

DENSE; lung tissue, vocal cords, and walls of some blood vessels

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hyaline cartilage

CT; most abundant - end of long bones, forms embryonic skeletal system

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fibrocartilage

CT; composes intervertebral discs and pubic synthesis

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elastic cartilage

CT; most elastic and vascular cartilage; found in auricle and auditory tubes

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bone

CT; support, protection, storage/release of minerals, store/form blood, and act as lever with muscles to enable movement

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blood

CT; plasma + RBC + WBC + platelets; transport nutrients/wastes, phagocytosis, immune response, and blood clotting

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lymph

CT; the ECF found in lymphatic vessels

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epithelial membrane

epithelial layer and its underlying connective tissue layer (3 kinds)

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mucous membrane

epithelial membrane; lines body cavities that open to the exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive), its goblet cells secrete mucus to trap pathogens

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serous membrane

epithelial membrane; lines body cavities that don't open to exterior (pericardium, pleura, peritoneum); composed of areolar connective tissue covered by mesothelium

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synovial membrane

epithelial membrane; lines structures that don't open to exterior (joints), produces synovial fluid, and contains CT but no epithelium

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skeletal muscle tissue

striated, allowing for strong contractions; used in conscious movement

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cardiac muscle tissue

less distinctly striated, forms heart, cells held together by intercalated discs

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smooth muscle tissue

lacking striations, nuclei are elongated; lines blood vessels, associated with autonomic nervous system

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neurons

neural cell that generates and conducts nerve impulses

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neuroglia

neural cell that doesn't conduct nerve impulses but physically and metabolically supports neurons; smaller, many different kinds