(1) Chapter 5 - Integuementary System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (1) Chapter 5 - Integuementary System Deck (52):
1

cutaneous membrane

covers the external body surface, is the largest organ (10-11 lbs), is .5-4 mm thick

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5 functions of cutaneous membrane

regulate body temp (sweating/shivering), store blood, protect internal from external, detect cutaneous stimuli, excrete/absorb substances, synthesize vitamin D

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3 layers of cutaneous membrane

epidermis (outer)
dermis (middle)
subcutaneous or hypodermis (deepest)

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epidermis

protective outer portion, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, 4 major cells types of cells (melanocytes, keratinocytes, langerhans, merkel), 4 major strati (C[L]GSB)

5

keratinocytes

90% of epidermal cells; produces keratin to protect skin/underlying structures from stresses

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melanocytes

8% of epidermal cells; everyone has the same #, produces melanin which gives skin its color and granulates to protect keratinocytes

7

langerhans cells

AKA intraepidermal macrophage cells; descendant of red blood marrow unique to the epidermis, handles damage to the epidermis (cuts that don't bleed)

8

merkel cells

AKA tactile epidermal cells; found in stratum basale of epidermis to detect light touch, least numerous of the epidermal cells

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stratum basale

deepest epidermal layer; contains merkel cells and the stratum germinativum (cells newly formed from mitosis)

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stratum spinosum

2nd deepest epidermal layer; contains the keratinocytes

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stratum granulosum

3rd deepest epidermal layer; keratohyalin (protein that converts keratin filaments to keratin) and lamellar granules (lipid-rich secretion waterproofs the skin) present

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stratum lucidum

2nd most superficial in thick skin (palm, soles, fingertips) ONLY; composed of 4-6 layers of dead keratinocytes,

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stratum corneum

superficial epidermal layer; made of 25-30 layers of dead, flat keratinocytes; callus is an unusual thickening in response to friction, dandruff is unusual shedding of the keratinocytes from scalp

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keratinization

movement of cells from one epidermal layer to another, gathering more keratin

15

dermis

middle, largest, and thickest layer of skin; its dense irregular CT w/collagen and elastic fibers give it great tensile strength so it can stretch and recoil; thinner in women; has the only blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles and glands of the skin

16

papillary region

superficial region of the dermis (20%); contains dermal papillae (which house capillaries), Meissner corpuscles (touch), and free nerve endings

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reticular region

deep portion of dermis (80%); contains adipose tissue, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous glands, and sweat glands

18

striae

stretch marks; scarring due to overstretching which disrupts collagen fibers and ruptures blood vessels

19

lines of cleavage

lines in the dermis indicating the direction of underlying collagen fibers; plastic surgeons must follow these lines

20

epidermal ridges

ridges (epidermal ridges) and valleys (dermal papillae) in thick skin to increase surface area to increase friction; increased # of tactile coropuscles to increase sensitivity

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pigments involved in skin color

melanin (darkness), carotene (yellow-orange), and hemoglobin (redness).

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freckles

accumulated patches of melanin

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nevus

AKA mole; a benign local overgrowth of melanocytes

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albinism

the inherited inability to produce melanin

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vitiligo

partial or complete loss of melanocytes from patches of skin, resulting in irregular light spots

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carotene

yellow-orange pigment in skin; precursor of vitamin A which is used to make pigments needed for vision

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hemoglobin

red pigment in skin and oxygen carrying molecule in RBC

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subcutaneous layer

deepest dermal layer, AKA hypodermis; contains lots of adipose tissue and lamellated corpuscles (sense deep pressure)

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cyanotic color

bluish, indicating that respiratory issues have caused underoxygenation of tissue

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jaundice

yellow color due to buildup of pigment bilirubin; common in newborns as their liver isn't fully functional yet

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erythema

redness due to increased blood flow to dermal capillaries as a response to head, infection, inflammation, or allergic response

32

pili

dermal hairs that function in protection, sensing light touch, and reducing heat loss; composed of dead, keratinized epidermal cells; each hair is made of shaft, root, and hair follice (covered by epithelial and dermal sheaths)

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bulb

papilla of hair which nourishes the growing follicle

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arrector pili muscles

help hair stand on end

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lanugo hair

very fine, nonpigmented hair covering the body of the fetus, shed and eaten before birth

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vellus hair

"peach fuzz" on infants that stays throughout lifetime, females have more

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terminal hair

hair that develops in puberty; 95% of male body hair, 35% of female body hair

38

sebaceous glands

oil glands, typically connected to hair follicles, secrete sebum which prevents the dehydration of hair/skin and inhibits bacterial growth

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sudoriferous glands

sweat glands

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eccrine sweat glands

found throughout body (esp. forehead, palms, soles), to regulate body temp and remove waste; stimulated during emotional distress

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aprocrine sweat glands

found in 'bearded areas' - groin, face, clitoris, labia minora, axilla, etc; stimulated during emotional stress and sexual arousal

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ceruminous glands

secrete cerumen (earwax) in external auditory canal to waterproof the canal and impede entrance of bugs/dirt/other things

43

nails

composed of hard, keratinized epidermal cells; consists of free edge, nail body/lunula at base, nail root, hyponychium (nail bed), eponychium (cuticle), and matrix; nail help w/grasping and manipulation, protection, scratching, and providing support to palmar surface of finger

44

affects of aging on skin

wrinkling (dehydration/cracking/loss of subcutaneous fat), decreased sweat, decreased melanocyte function, decrease of thickness, more susceptible to pathogens, decreased growth of hair/nails

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basal cell carcinoma

small shiny bump w/central depression, most common/least dangerous b/c it doesn't metastasize, affects stratum basale layer keratinocytes

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squamous cell carcinoma

raised/reddish/scaly, affects stratum spinosum keratinocytes esp those w/sun exposure, chance of recovery good w/early treatment

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malignant melanoma

often comes from other cancers, dangerous b/c it metasticizes from melanocytes very quickly and is unresponsive to chemo

48

burns

leading cause of accidental death, the fluid loss and infection part kills ya

49

1st degree burns

only epidermis is damaged - burn is red, painful, may have slight edema, will heal quickly, ex. sunburns

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2nd degree burns

only epidermis and part of dermis is damages - burn is red/tan/white and blistered/painful, healing takes 2 weeks to several months and may scar

51

3rd degree burns

full thickness burn reaching to subcutaneous layer (possibly deeper too), often requires skin grafts, fluid replacement, and infection control

52

ABCDE of skin cancer

Assymetry, Border (faint is bad), Color (change is bad), Diameter (growth/largeness is bad), Elevation