(1) Chapter 6 - Skeletal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in (1) Chapter 6 - Skeletal System Deck (25):
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function of bones

support, protect, aid in movement, store/release minerals, store trygliderides

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5 types of bones

long, short, flat (sternum, skull), irregular (vertebrae), sesamoid (patella)

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6 parts of long bone

periosteum (surrounds non-articular bone), diaphysis (shaft), epiphyses (ends), metaphyses (growth plates b/w shaft and ends), articular cartilage (covers epiphyses), medullary cavity (marrow cavity), endosteum (lines medullary cavity)

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osteogenic cells

the 'stem cells' of bones

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osteoblasts

bone cells matured from osteogenic cells; function in bone formation, found near the epiphyseal plate

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osteocytes

develops from osteoblasts, void of active function, composes compact bone tissue

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osteoclasts

largest bone cell, multinucleated, breaks down bone cells.

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structure of diaphysis

medullary cavity surrounded by osteons which are connected by canaliculi and held together by interstitial lamellae. osteons are a central canal surrounded by layers of concentric lacunae (tiny canals) held together by which support the osteocytes; medullary cavity and whole shaft encompassed by circumferential lamellae

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osteons

structural, functional units of the skeletal system

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central canal

central region of an osteon containing nerves, blood, and lymph

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concentric lamellae

surrounds osteons in layers

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lacunae

chambers housing osteocytes, found between layers of concentric lamellae

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canaliculi

arm-like projections of lacunae which holds individual osteons togehther

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interstitial lamellae

fills space in-between osteons

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circumferential lamellae

encompasses all the osteons of a region

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trabeculae

arm-like projections of spongy bone, lack central canals

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formation of epiphyseal line

endochrondal ossification on the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate replaces the cartilage with bone, until the diaphysis and epiphysis meet at a line

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zones of epiphyseal plate

resting (few chrondocytes; anchor plate to epiphysis), proliferation (chrondocytes undergo interstitial growth), hypertrophy (large chrondocytes arranged in columns), calcification (new diaphysis formed from calcified chrondocytes)

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bone resportion

osteoclasts remove collagen fibers and mineral from bone

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bone deposition

osteoblasts deposit minerals and collagen fibers in bone

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osteoporosis

bones are 'porous' due to over-resportion of bone; older women more susceptible (bones are less massive and childbirth depletes calcium)

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osteopinea

a decrease in bone density, often a precursor to osteoporosis

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4 steps of bone fracture repair

formation of fracture hematoma (several weeks), of fibrocartilaginous callus (3 weeks), of bony callus (3-4 months), and bone remodeling (weeks to months)

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3 factors affecting bone regrowth/repair

availability of minerals (calcium and phosphorous), vitamins (A,C,D,K,B-12), and hormones (insulin, IGFs, thyroid hormones)

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2 affects of aging on bone tissue

loss of bone mass due to demineralization by osteoclasts, and brittleness as collagen fiber production slows