1. covalent bonding in biomolecules Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. covalent bonding in biomolecules Deck (23)
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1

elements of life (6)

hydrogen carbon nitrogen oxygen phosphorus and sulfur
they can form large complex molecules

2

the ability of an element to form chemical bonds depends on

unpaired electrons on the outer / valence shell of the atom

3

hydrogen has how many electron shells and electrons

1 electron shell , one electron

4

helium has how many electron shells and electrons

one electron shell and two electrons (a pair)

5

both hydrogen and helium are found on what period of the periodic table

first periiod

6

when are atoms most stable

when their valence shell is filled with the maximum number of electrons

7

three properties of covalent bond

strong
defined length
defined direction (directional)

8

how many covalent bonds do each of the six elements of life have

hydrogen 1
carbon 4
oxygen 2
nitrogen 3
sulphur 2
phosphorus 5

9

draw CH4 in 2d and 3d

3d is two single bonds top and leftm on the right is dashed (vertical lines) and the bottom is wedge

10

do single bonds allow rotation

yes

11

what does rotation around single bonds do to the molecule

changes the conformation/ shape of the molecule

12

when is a conformation more likely to take place

if the groups are kept at maximum distance from each other

13

carbon atoms with four single bonds have what geometry

tetrahedral

14

carbon atoms with one double bond have what geometry

trigonal planar

15

do double bonds allow rotation and why

no, because they lie on a single plane

16

what are alcohols oxidised to (2)

aldehyde or ketone

17

what can aldehydes be further oxidised to

carboxylic acids

18

how do carboxylic acids become carboxylates

dissociation of a H+

19

what is the name of a carboxylic acid with 1 carbon,then 2, 3, 4

formic acid
acetic acid
propionic acid
butyric acid

20

how does acetic acid become an acetyl group

loses the Oh

21

at the least how many carbons should ana acyl group have

14 and above

22

describe the sulfhydryl (thiol group)

-SH, can act like OH but has unique bonding

23

describe the amino group

-NH2
Is basic
can become protonated to -NH3+