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Who said that 1) the commonsense conception of psychopathology is that pathological psychological phenomena are those that are statistically different or infrequent, 2) is a maladaptive behavior, 3) is distress and disability, 4) is a social deviance, 5) is harmful dysfunction?

Maddux and Winstead (2008)


Give the DSM definition of a mental disorder, and provide a citation.

"A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning. Mental disorders are usually associated with significant distress in social, occupational, or other important activities. An expectable or culturally approved response to a common stressor or loss, such as the death of a loved one, is not a mental disorder. Socially deviant behavior (e.g., political, religious, or sexual) and conflicts that are primarily between the individual and society are not mental disorders unless the deviance or conflict results from a dysfunction in the individual, as described above."

APA (2013)


Explain dichotomous classification versus dimensional.

It's the difference between assigning people to groups, versus locating them among one or more continua.


Briefly describe the difference between social constructivist and essentialist views.

Social constructivist: Defined entirely by society and cultural values; the idea that it is created by people and is a social process, not scientific.

Essentialist: The belief that there are natural categories and all members share important characteristics; psychopathology and mental disorders are natural entities whose true nature can be discovered and described.