For criminal liability to attach to a physical act, the act must be what?
What three things are required for criminal liability to attach to an omission?
1. Legal duty to act
2. Knowledge of the duty
3. Ability to help
What are the three common law mental states?
1. Specific intent
3. General intent
What type of offences require no intent?
Strict liability offences
What is the definition of specific intent?
Intent to achieve a specific result
What are the two special defences to specific intent crimes? How come?
1. Voluntary intoxication
2. Unreasonable mistake of fact
Because they negate the specificity requirement of the intent
What is the definition of malice?
Acting intentionally or with reckless disregard of an obvious or known risk
What is general intent?
General awareness of factors constituting the crime
What are the four mental states under the Model Penal Code?
Under the Model Penal Code, what is purpose?
Conscious desire to achieve a result
Under the Model Penal Code, what is knowledge?
D knows that it is practically certain that his conduct will cause a result
Under the Model Penal Code, what is recklessness?
Aware of a risk which is disregarded
Under the Model Penal Code, what is negligence?
Should have been aware of a risk
What are the two types of causation needed?
1. Actual causation
2. Proximate/legal causation
What is actual causation?
The bad result would not have happened but for D's conduct
What is an accelerating cause and is it sufficient for actual causation?
A cause which speeds up a result is an actual cause
What is proximate/legal causation?
Bad result is natural and probable consequence of D's conduct
What one thing will defeat proximate causation?
An unforeseeable intervening event which causes the result
What one thing will not defeat proximate causation?
The victim's eggshell skull
What are the two malice crimes?
1. Murder (other than murder 1)
What are the four general intent crimes?
3. False imprisonment
What are the specific intent crimes?
Everything else not listed as a malice or general intent crime