1: ENT and paediatrics Flashcards Preview

Child Health Week 2 2017/18 > 1: ENT and paediatrics > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1: ENT and paediatrics Deck (28)
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1

The frequency of a sound determines its ___.

The amplitude of a sound determines its ___.

pitch

volume

2

What is the range of frequencies a human can hear?

20 - 20000 Hz

3

The external ear is shaped to receive what?

Sound

4

The internal ear chamber is full of (fluid / air).

air

5

The middle ear does what to sound?

Amplifies it

around 20x

6

The inner ear converts sound energy to what?

Electrical energy

i.e impulses

7

Which structure receives sound and converts it to nerve impulses?

Cochlea

8

By which nerve do nerve impulses travel from the cochlea to the brain?

Vestibulocochlear nerve

CN VIII

9

Which part of the brain receives nerve impulses from the vestibulocochlear nerve?

Where exactly in the brain is this part found?

Cochlear nucleus

Brainstem

10

Which specific part of the brain processes info from the ear?

Primary auditory cortex

11

At which point can a foetus hear?

18 weeks

12

At which point can a foetus respond to noise?

26 weeks

13

At birth, some infants will have what?

Hearing loss

of varying severity

14

What proportion of infants will have bilateral hearing loss at birth?

1 : 1000

15

At what age do babies start making noise?

3 months

16

At what age do children start babbling?

6 months

17

Between 12 and 24 months, how do children learn to speak?

Focus on syllables and delete the rest

Cut syllables which are too hard

Substitute hard sounds with easier ones

Use single words to describe things

18

At which age do children start to talk?

18 months

19

At which age are children more capable of talking by using two word phrases and using more words?

24 months

20

What are some causes of developmental delay in language skills?

Hearing problems

ADHD

Autism spectrum disorders

Specific language disorders (e.g verbal dyspraxia)

Global developmental delay e.g Down syndrome

21

What is a SALT?

Speech and language assessment

22

What proportion of babies are born with profound hearing loss?

1 : 1000

23

How can profound hearing loss be caused in the womb?

Genetics

Acquired - maternal infection, trauma

24

How is hearing loss detected in newborns?

Screening

25

Which type of cells are missing from the cochlea in children who may have profound hearing loss?

Outer hair cells

26

What is used to allow children with hearing loss to pick up sound and develop speech?

Cochlear implantation

27

What is the most common type of profound congenital hearing loss?

Non-syndromic hearing loss

28

What causes non-syndromic hearing loss?

Genetic mutations