Flashcards in 1- Intro To Stuttering Deck (20):
What is stuttering?
Disorder of neuromotor control of speech which results in abnormally high frequency and/or duration of stops in flowing speech.
What does stuttering look like in terms of frequency and duration?
FREQUENCY: stutter on >10% of words
DURATION: about 1 second
What are the three major factors for what causes stuttering?
1) Genetic/Congenital factors
2) Developmental Influences
3) Environmental Influences
How does stuttering start?
Can start as a gradual increase in the normal disfluencies of childhood, or can be the sudden appearance of severe blocks. Onset is most often at 2-3.5 YOA
What are the prevalence and incidence of stuttering?
PREVALENCE: 2.4% in kindergarden, 1% in school age,
What makes you less likely to recover?
The following makes you less likely to recover:
- Family Hx
- Onset older than 3.5 YOA
- Multiple unit repetitions
- Below normal phonological skills
- Persistant beyond 1 year
- Prolongations and blocks
What is the progression of the sex ratio in stuttering?
Ratio is approximately 1:1 at onset. Girls start to stutter earlier but recover earlier and more often. By the time they enter the school, the ratio is closer to 3:1, and this ratio continues into adulthood.
What are fluency-inducing conditions? Provide 5 examples.
Fluency inducing conditions are temporary periods of fluent speech caused by reduced demands on speech-motor control and language formation.
1) Speaking to animal or a baby
2) Speaking in unison with another
3) Speaking to rhythm/music
4) When swearing
5) In slow/prolonged manner
What are the developmental/treatment levels of stuttering and their associated ages?
1) NORMAL DISFLUENCY: Age 1.5-6
2) BORDERLINE STUTTERING: young ps, 1.5-3.5
3) BEGINNING STUTTERING: older ps, 3.5-6
4) INTERMEDIATE STUTTERING: school, 6-13
5) ADVANCED STUTTERING: teens +, 14+
What are the categories of normal disfluencies?
Part word Repetition
Multisyllabic Word Repetition
Single-Syllable word repetition
What are the characteristics of normal disfluency?
1) No more than 10 disfluencies per 100 words
2) Typically one-unit repetitions (occasionally 2)
3) Most common disfluencies are interjections, revisions and repetitions.
4) Children are unaware of their disfluencies
What factors increase normal disfluencies?
- demands on language acquisition
- delayed speech motor skills
- competition and excitement when speaking
What are the characteristics of borderline stuttering?
1) More than 10 disfluencies per 100 words
2) More than 2 units in repetition
3) More repetitions and prolongations than revisions and incomplete phrases
How do some kids "outgrow" borderline stuttering?
- resource reallocation to compensate
- speech & language systems mature
- conflicts resolve
What are the characteristics of beginning stuttering?
- signs of muscle tension & hurry appear
- repetitions rapid and irregular, increasing pitch
- fixed articulatory postures present when child unable to begin a word
- escape behaviours begin to appear
- awareness of difficulty and feelings of frustration present
- no strong feelings about self yet
What are the characteristics of intermediate stuttering?
- most frequent core is blocks (still have rep/pro)
- use of escape behaviours to get out of blocks
- begin to anticipate blocks so use avoidance
- fear before stuttering, embarrassment during, shame after
- stuttering itself has not changed, 2 behaviours do
What are the characteristics of advanced stuttering?
- more frequent core behaviours are long/tense blocks ft. tremors (still have rep/pro)
- stuttering may be suppressed through avoidance
- complex avoidance and escape patterns
- emotions of fear/embarassment/shame v. strong
What are considered "normal disfluencies"
- Interjections: "he went to the - uh- concert"
- Revisions: "I lose my-where's mum going?"
- Multi-syllabic word/phrase repetitions "Meeko..Meeko is a good dog"
What are considered "atypical disfluencies"?
- Part-word repetitions: "mi-mi-mi-milk"
- Single-Word repetitions: "my my my my dad"
- Prolongations: "ssssssssssssssay cheese"