1- Intro To Stuttering Flashcards Preview

Fluency > 1- Intro To Stuttering > Flashcards

Flashcards in 1- Intro To Stuttering Deck (20):
1

What is stuttering?

Disorder of neuromotor control of speech which results in abnormally high frequency and/or duration of stops in flowing speech.

2

What does stuttering look like in terms of frequency and duration?

FREQUENCY: stutter on >10% of words
DURATION: about 1 second

3

What are the three major factors for what causes stuttering?

1) Genetic/Congenital factors
2) Developmental Influences
3) Environmental Influences

4

How does stuttering start?

Can start as a gradual increase in the normal disfluencies of childhood, or can be the sudden appearance of severe blocks. Onset is most often at 2-3.5 YOA

5

What are the prevalence and incidence of stuttering?

PREVALENCE: 2.4% in kindergarden, 1% in school age,

6

What makes you less likely to recover?

The following makes you less likely to recover:
- Family Hx
- Onset older than 3.5 YOA
- Multiple unit repetitions
- Below normal phonological skills
- Make
- Persistant beyond 1 year
- Prolongations and blocks

7

What is the progression of the sex ratio in stuttering?

Ratio is approximately 1:1 at onset. Girls start to stutter earlier but recover earlier and more often. By the time they enter the school, the ratio is closer to 3:1, and this ratio continues into adulthood.

8

What are fluency-inducing conditions? Provide 5 examples.

Fluency inducing conditions are temporary periods of fluent speech caused by reduced demands on speech-motor control and language formation.

1) Speaking to animal or a baby
2) Speaking in unison with another
3) Speaking to rhythm/music
4) When swearing
5) In slow/prolonged manner

9

What are the developmental/treatment levels of stuttering and their associated ages?

1) NORMAL DISFLUENCY: Age 1.5-6
2) BORDERLINE STUTTERING: young ps, 1.5-3.5
3) BEGINNING STUTTERING: older ps, 3.5-6
4) INTERMEDIATE STUTTERING: school, 6-13
5) ADVANCED STUTTERING: teens +, 14+

10

What are the categories of normal disfluencies?

PMS TRIPP

Part word Repetition
Multisyllabic Word Repetition
Single-Syllable word repetition

Tense Pause
Revision-Incomplete Phrase
Interjection
Phrase Repetition
Prolongation

11

What are the characteristics of normal disfluency?

1) No more than 10 disfluencies per 100 words
2) Typically one-unit repetitions (occasionally 2)
3) Most common disfluencies are interjections, revisions and repetitions.
4) Children are unaware of their disfluencies

12

What factors increase normal disfluencies?

- demands on language acquisition
- delayed speech motor skills
- stress
- competition and excitement when speaking

13

What are the characteristics of borderline stuttering?

1) More than 10 disfluencies per 100 words
2) More than 2 units in repetition
3) More repetitions and prolongations than revisions and incomplete phrases

14

How do some kids "outgrow" borderline stuttering?

- resource reallocation to compensate
- speech & language systems mature
- conflicts resolve

15

What are the characteristics of beginning stuttering?

- signs of muscle tension & hurry appear
- repetitions rapid and irregular, increasing pitch
- fixed articulatory postures present when child unable to begin a word
- escape behaviours begin to appear
- awareness of difficulty and feelings of frustration present
- no strong feelings about self yet

16

What are the characteristics of intermediate stuttering?

- most frequent core is blocks (still have rep/pro)
- use of escape behaviours to get out of blocks
- begin to anticipate blocks so use avoidance
- fear before stuttering, embarrassment during, shame after
- stuttering itself has not changed, 2 behaviours do

17

What are the characteristics of advanced stuttering?

- more frequent core behaviours are long/tense blocks ft. tremors (still have rep/pro)
- stuttering may be suppressed through avoidance
- complex avoidance and escape patterns
- emotions of fear/embarassment/shame v. strong

18

What are considered "normal disfluencies"

- Interjections: "he went to the - uh- concert"
- Revisions: "I lose my-where's mum going?"
- Multi-syllabic word/phrase repetitions "Meeko..Meeko is a good dog"

19

What are considered "atypical disfluencies"?

- Part-word repetitions: "mi-mi-mi-milk"
- Blocks
- Single-Word repetitions: "my my my my dad"
- Prolongations: "ssssssssssssssay cheese"

20

What are secondary behaviours?

Learned behaviours triggered by the experience or anticipation of stutter. Include:
1) ESCAPE: speaker stuttering and attempts to terminate the stutter to finish the word
2) AVOIDANCE: speaker anticipates a stutter and tries to avoid it