1. Introduction To Organic Chemistry Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1. Introduction To Organic Chemistry Deck (18):
1

Define empirical formula

Simplest formula that shows the ratio of number of each kind of atoms of elements present in one molecule

2

Define nucleophile (Lewis base)

Electron pair donor and has a lone pair of electrons to be donated

3

Define electrophile (Lewis acid)

Electron pair acceptor and is electron deficient

4

Define homolytic fission

Covalent bond is broken such that each of the bonding atoms takes one of the bonding electrons, giving rise to free radicals (species with unpaired electrons)
Energy must be supplied (light) to break the strong covalent bond --> free radicals formed possess this energy and are thus very reactive

5

Define heterolytic fission

Covalent bond is broken such that one of the bonding atoms takes both bonding electrons (and becomes an anion) while the rest of the molecules become a cation

6

Define addition reaction

Reaction where two or more molecules combine to form a single product
The attacking reagent adds across an unsaturated bond on the reactant

7

Define substitution reaction

Reaction which involved the replacement of an atom or group of atoms (leaving group) by another atom or group of atoms

8

Define elimination reaction

Reaction which involves the loss of a small molecule from one larger molecule, giving rise to an unsaturated product

9

Define condensation (addition-elimination) reaction

Reaction which involves the joining of two molecules, with the loss of a small molecule in the process

10

Define hydrolysis reaction

Reactions involving water

11

Define oxidation reaction

Reactions which involve the removal of H and / or addition of O

12

Define reduction reaction

Reactions which involve removal of O and / or addition of H

13

Define constitutional/structural isomerism

Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula

E.g. Chain isomers, positional isomers, functional group isomers

14

Define stereoisomerism and state the two types of stereoisomerism

Same molecular and structural formula but differ in the spatial arrangement of their atoms

Geometrical/cis-trans isomers and enantiomers/optical isomers

15

State the conditions for cis-trans isomerism and the properties of geometrical isomers

Conditions:
-restricted rotation about a C=C bond i.e. in alkenes
-two different groups/atoms attached to each carbon atom of the C=C bond

Properties:
-Generally have different physical properties and in some cases, different chemical properties too

16

Define enantiomers

Stereoisomers which are non-superimposable mirror images, arising due to the presence of a chiral carbon centre

17

State the properties of enantiomers

-Identical physical properties except their effect on plane polarized light --> A pair of enantiomers rotate plane-polarized light by equal but opposite angles
-Identical chemical properties except when interacting with other chiral molecules e.g. chiral drugs with chiral enzyme active sites

18

Define molecular formula.

Actual number of each kind of atoms present in one molecule