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Flashcards in 1. Nutrition & Nutrients Deck (136):
1

What are the 5 diff. types of nutrients

1. Carbohydrates
2. Protein
3. Lipids
4. Minerals
5. Vitamins

2

What is the primary component of livestock feeds

Carbohydrates

3

What are the 3 categories of Carbohydrates

1. Monosaccharides (1 sugar molecule)
2. Disaccharides (2 sugar molecules)
3. Polysaccharides (may sugar molecules)

4

What are the two subcategories of monosaccharides

1. pentoses
2. hexoses

5

Examples of Pentoses

Arabinose
Ribose
Xylose

6

Examples of Hexoses

Fructose
Glucose
Galactose
Mannose

7

Examples of Disaccharides

Lactose
Maltose
Sucrose

8

Examples of Polysaccharides

Cellulose
Starch
Glycogen
Gums
Hemicellulose

9

Found in the highest conc., after water, in all living organisms

Protein

10

4 functions of Proteins:

1. Protecting the body (hair/skin)
2. Food digestion (enzymes)
3. Stimulating growth (hormones)
4. Immune reactions (Ig)

11

What is the purpose of the AA sequence in proteins

Determines proteins functions and properties

12

Proteins that contain minerals:

Haemoglobin

13

Proteins that contain carbohydrates:

Glycoproteins

14

Proteins that contain lipids:

lipoproteins

15

3 likely deficient AAs

1. Lysine
2. Methionine
3. Tryptophan

16

Which AA is low in cereals

Trypthophan

17

When an AA required to synthesize a protein is not available, The AA is known as _______

Limiting AA

18

Organic compounds insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent

Lipids

19

What are phospholipids and where are they found?

Fatty acids + phosphorus, found in cell memb.

20

Main role of lipids?

conc. form of energy

21

Fats are composed of Fatty acids (FA) of varied lengths combined with a ______ molecule

Glycerol

22

What is the diff. b/t saturated and unsaturated FAs

S: all C bonds are taken by H
US: open C bonds

23

____ FAs, The animal requires but not able to synthesize

Essential

24

What percentage of a monogastric's diet should be Essential FAs

1%

25

Essential FAs are important for what?

the lipid-protein structure of the cell memb. (Prostaglandin)

26

C/S of Essential FA deficiency?

Scaly skin, necrosis of tail, poor feathering

27

T/F. It is common for mammals to show C/S of Essential FA deficiency?

F. Poultry

28

Inorganic components of the diet that are solid, crystalline elements that cannot be decomposed or synthesized by chemical reactions.

Minerals

29

What are macro-minerals?

major minerals found in conc. above 100ppm

30

What are micro-minerals

conc. less than 100ppm

31

Examples of Macro minerals

Ca
P
Cl
Mg
K
Na
S

32

Most minerals found in the animal's body is part of the ____

skeleton

33

What is the Ash content?

All the minerals left over when you burn a carcass

34

Important functions of minerals

1. Enzyme activity
2. Oxygen Transport
3. Component of vitamines
4. osmotic pressure
5. Nervous system

35

What are the two categories of Vitamins

1. Water soluble
2. fat soluble

36

which category of vitamins are required as a co-factor of enzymes

Water soluble

37

Where are most vitamins stored?

Liver

38

Common signs of vitamin deficiency

Anorexia
reduced growth
dermatitis
muscular incoordination
weakness

39

Vit. A deficiency causes _____

blindness

40

Vit. D deficiency causes _____.

Rickets

41

Vit. K deficiency causes ____.

Tissue hemorrhage

42

_____ is required in the highest amt. in animal diet

Dietary Energy

43

What is the most important sorce of energy?

Carbohydrates

44

The capacity to do work:

Energy

45

The amt. of energy needed to raise the temp of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius:

Calorie (Cal)

46

What is Digestible energy?

Gross Energy in feed - GE in poops

47

What is the most common analysis for feed samples

Proximate Analysis

48

What are the 6 categores measured in proximate analysis

1. Dry matter
2. Crude protein
3. Ether Extract
4. Crude Fiber
5. Ash
6. Nitrogen free extract

49

Most feeds have their nutritional composition presented in the basis of ______.

Dry matter

50

How is Dry matter determined?

Drying a sample in an oven until constant weight.

51

DM% =

(Dry wt. / Fresh wt)*100

52

How is Crude Protein (CP) estimated?

Kjeldahl method: measures N content irrespective of source

53

Results from the extracting a feed with ethyl ether or combination of organic solvents

Ether Extract (EE)/ Crude fat

54

How do you determine fatty acid composition?

Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

55

How is Crude Fiber (CF) Determined?

Boiling ground feed in a weak acid-- filtering-- boiling in weak alkali-- filtration-- Drying

56

Inorganic mineral content is determined by ___ content

Ash

57

T/F Specific mineral content can be determined by ash content

F

must do other analysis to determine mineral content ( Atomic absorption, Spectrophotometry)

58

Estimation of the readily vailable carbohydrates

Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)

59

How do you calc. NFE?

100 - (CP + CFiber + Cfat + Ash)

60

How is Energy calculated?

Oxygen Bomb Caloimeter

61

More accurate in definin carbohydrate content not part of proximate analysis:

Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acidic Detergent Fiber (ADF)

62

What parts of plants contain NDF?

Structural components of the plant, specifically cell wall

63

NDF is a predictor of voluntary intake because it provides _____ or _____

Bulk or fill

64

T/F. Low NDF values are desired

T. b/c NDF increases as plant matures

65

What parts of plants contain ADF?

The least digestible plant components, cellulose and lignin

66

T/F. Low ADF concentrations are more nutritious?

T

67

What does NIRS stand for?

Near Infrared Spectroscopy

68

A component of a diet that serves some useful function

Feedstuff

69

What are the 5 important classifications of feedstuff

1. Roughages
2. Pasture
4. Silage and Haylage
5. Mineral supplements
6. Vitamin supplements

70

the nutritional comp of feedstuff depends on what 6 things?

1. Time of year
2. Availability of water
3. Time of harvest
4. Plant variety
5. Processing
6. Conservation

71

The total plant material to be consumed by the animal

Forage

72

dietary components that are high in fiber

Roughage

73

Plant material not including seeds or roots

Herbage

74

T/F. Roughages are normally high in readily available carbohydrates

F. low carbs

75

What are the 4 categories of herbage?

1. Grasses
2. Legumes
3. Forbs
4. Browse

76

What are the two categories of grasses

1. cool season: Timothy, sweet clover
2. Warm season:
Bermuda grass, switchgrass

77

Legumes like alfalfa have the ability to convert atmospheric N into _____.

Crude protein

78

What are the two types of grasses and where can they typically be found?

C3- temperate climate
C4- tropical or subtropical

79

T/F. C4 grasses have typically lower protein content than C3 grasses

T

80

How does Bermuda Grass spread?

through rhizomes

81

When do you get the best quality ryegrass?

Cool season

82

What temp. best suits Brome grass?

Cold

83

Drought tolerant grass common in lawns and patures

Fescue

84

Fescue can often be contaminated with ____ causing _____.

Neotyphodium coenophialum, causing ergot type alkaloids

85

What is summer syndrome?

inc. body temp, rapid breathing, and dec. production of cattle caused by feeding fescue

86

What does feeding poor quality fescue cause in horses?

prolonged gestation, weak foals, abortion, agalactia

87

What are the benefits of timothy?

cold adapted, CP can be high

88

Type of plant with nodules in the root system

Legumes

89

_____ in the nodules of legumes are able to transform atmospheric N into a form usable by plant

Rhizobia

90

T/F Legumes have high CP?

T

91

Examples of legumes?

Alfalfa, clover, soybean, green bean, peas

92

what are the two major alfalfa associated problems

1. Bloat in cattle
2. Blister beetle toxicity in horses

93

What is Blister Beetle toxicity?

Epicauta spp beetle is eaten by horse when grazing alfalfa causing GI upset!

94

C/S of Blister beetle toxicity?

Oral ulcers and colic

95

Legume that may cause coagulation issues in livestock mostly cattle

Sweet clover

96

What is the caution with red clover?

may be contaminated with rhizoctonia leguminocola leading to Salframine accumulation

97

C/S of Slaframine toxicosis

salivary syndrome in horses

bloat, diarrhea, frequent urination

98

Alsike clover may ause problems related to _____ in horses

Photosensitization

99

Any low growing boradleaf plant that commonly grows with grass plants

Forbs

100

Another name for woody plants

Brose

101

T/F. The stems of plants have more fiber

T

102

T/F Plants that are flowering are more nutritious?

F. less

103

Select the tropical grass species:
a. Bermuda
b. Rye grass

Bermuda

104

What is Green Chop?

forage harvested daily and fed to dairy in bunks

105

Forage baled at low water content

Hay

106

Semi-wilted fermented grasses/legumes in bags

Haylage

107

Preserved short fibers that have a moisture higher than haylage and hay

Silage

108

What is silage?

any crop that is preserved anaerobicallly

109

What are the 3 types of silage?

1. Ensiled forages
2. Carbonaceoous
3. Proteinaceous

110

What are two examples of Carbonaceous silages?

1. Corn silage
2. Grass silage

111

What are two examples of Proteinaceous Silages

1. Alfalfa silage
2. Clover silage

112

Grains produced by plants of the grass family, provide immense tonnages of harvested grains

Cereal grains

113

Examples of Cereal grains

Corn
Rice
Wheat
Barley
Oats
Sorghum

114

Benefits of feeding corn

Highly palatable
High Energy
Low fiber

115

T/F corn is high in protein

F. low

116

Why is wheat not commonly used in animal feeds

May become pasty in GIT

117

What is Bran?

Grain by product removed when white flour is made

118

By- product of the sugar industry used to inc. palatability of the feed

Molasses

119

Dietary source of essential fatty acids

Fats and oils (F&O)

120

____ is the most important protein supplement

Soybean

121

Residue left after the cotton, lint, and hull have been removed

Cottonseed meal

122

Cottonseed meal congaing ____, which can be toxic to the heart, lungs, and repro organs

Gossypol

123

T/F Sunflowers and Peanuts are high in lysine

F. low

124

3 cereals used to make beer

1. corn
2. rye
3. malted barley

125

What is NPN?

Non protein nitrogen. Feed grade urea

126

What is the most common mineral supplement added to diets

Salt

127

Why is calcium and phosphorus added to animals diets?

skeletal growth, lactation, egg production

128

T/F Cereals are high in Ca and P?

F. very low

129

What are the 5 sources of Calcium phosphorus?

1. Dicalcium phosphate
2. Rock phosphates
3. Ca Carbonate
4. Limestone
5. Oyster shells

130

Where is Vit A found?

animal tissues

131

Where is Vit D found?

Sun-cured forages
Fish liver oil

132

Where is Vit. E found

Germ or germ oil of plants,
greeen plants or hays

133

Where is Vit K found?

Green plant material

134

Where is Vit B complex found?

Animal and fish by-products, dairy products

135

Ingredients or combination of ingredients added to the basic feed mix to fulfill a specific need

Feed additives

136

What are the 7 types of feed additives?

1. Antibiotics
2. Arsenicals
3. Coccidiostats
4. Nitrofurans
5. Hormones
6. Enzymes
7. Pigments