Flashcards in 1. Nutrition & Nutrients Deck (136):
What are the 5 diff. types of nutrients
What is the primary component of livestock feeds
What are the 3 categories of Carbohydrates
1. Monosaccharides (1 sugar molecule)
2. Disaccharides (2 sugar molecules)
3. Polysaccharides (may sugar molecules)
What are the two subcategories of monosaccharides
Examples of Pentoses
Examples of Hexoses
Examples of Disaccharides
Examples of Polysaccharides
Found in the highest conc., after water, in all living organisms
4 functions of Proteins:
1. Protecting the body (hair/skin)
2. Food digestion (enzymes)
3. Stimulating growth (hormones)
4. Immune reactions (Ig)
What is the purpose of the AA sequence in proteins
Determines proteins functions and properties
Proteins that contain minerals:
Proteins that contain carbohydrates:
Proteins that contain lipids:
3 likely deficient AAs
Which AA is low in cereals
When an AA required to synthesize a protein is not available, The AA is known as _______
Organic compounds insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent
What are phospholipids and where are they found?
Fatty acids + phosphorus, found in cell memb.
Main role of lipids?
conc. form of energy
Fats are composed of Fatty acids (FA) of varied lengths combined with a ______ molecule
What is the diff. b/t saturated and unsaturated FAs
S: all C bonds are taken by H
US: open C bonds
____ FAs, The animal requires but not able to synthesize
What percentage of a monogastric's diet should be Essential FAs
Essential FAs are important for what?
the lipid-protein structure of the cell memb. (Prostaglandin)
C/S of Essential FA deficiency?
Scaly skin, necrosis of tail, poor feathering
T/F. It is common for mammals to show C/S of Essential FA deficiency?
Inorganic components of the diet that are solid, crystalline elements that cannot be decomposed or synthesized by chemical reactions.
What are macro-minerals?
major minerals found in conc. above 100ppm
What are micro-minerals
conc. less than 100ppm
Examples of Macro minerals
Most minerals found in the animal's body is part of the ____
What is the Ash content?
All the minerals left over when you burn a carcass
Important functions of minerals
1. Enzyme activity
2. Oxygen Transport
3. Component of vitamines
4. osmotic pressure
5. Nervous system
What are the two categories of Vitamins
1. Water soluble
2. fat soluble
which category of vitamins are required as a co-factor of enzymes
Where are most vitamins stored?
Common signs of vitamin deficiency
Vit. A deficiency causes _____
Vit. D deficiency causes _____.
Vit. K deficiency causes ____.
_____ is required in the highest amt. in animal diet
What is the most important sorce of energy?
The capacity to do work:
The amt. of energy needed to raise the temp of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius:
What is Digestible energy?
Gross Energy in feed - GE in poops
What is the most common analysis for feed samples
What are the 6 categores measured in proximate analysis
1. Dry matter
2. Crude protein
3. Ether Extract
4. Crude Fiber
6. Nitrogen free extract
Most feeds have their nutritional composition presented in the basis of ______.
How is Dry matter determined?
Drying a sample in an oven until constant weight.
(Dry wt. / Fresh wt)*100
How is Crude Protein (CP) estimated?
Kjeldahl method: measures N content irrespective of source
Results from the extracting a feed with ethyl ether or combination of organic solvents
Ether Extract (EE)/ Crude fat
How do you determine fatty acid composition?
Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
How is Crude Fiber (CF) Determined?
Boiling ground feed in a weak acid-- filtering-- boiling in weak alkali-- filtration-- Drying
Inorganic mineral content is determined by ___ content
T/F Specific mineral content can be determined by ash content
must do other analysis to determine mineral content ( Atomic absorption, Spectrophotometry)
Estimation of the readily vailable carbohydrates
Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE)
How do you calc. NFE?
100 - (CP + CFiber + Cfat + Ash)
How is Energy calculated?
Oxygen Bomb Caloimeter
More accurate in definin carbohydrate content not part of proximate analysis:
Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF) and Acidic Detergent Fiber (ADF)
What parts of plants contain NDF?
Structural components of the plant, specifically cell wall
NDF is a predictor of voluntary intake because it provides _____ or _____
Bulk or fill
T/F. Low NDF values are desired
T. b/c NDF increases as plant matures
What parts of plants contain ADF?
The least digestible plant components, cellulose and lignin
T/F. Low ADF concentrations are more nutritious?
What does NIRS stand for?
Near Infrared Spectroscopy
A component of a diet that serves some useful function
What are the 5 important classifications of feedstuff
4. Silage and Haylage
5. Mineral supplements
6. Vitamin supplements
the nutritional comp of feedstuff depends on what 6 things?
1. Time of year
2. Availability of water
3. Time of harvest
4. Plant variety
The total plant material to be consumed by the animal
dietary components that are high in fiber
Plant material not including seeds or roots
T/F. Roughages are normally high in readily available carbohydrates
F. low carbs
What are the 4 categories of herbage?
What are the two categories of grasses
1. cool season: Timothy, sweet clover
2. Warm season:
Bermuda grass, switchgrass
Legumes like alfalfa have the ability to convert atmospheric N into _____.
What are the two types of grasses and where can they typically be found?
C3- temperate climate
C4- tropical or subtropical
T/F. C4 grasses have typically lower protein content than C3 grasses
How does Bermuda Grass spread?
When do you get the best quality ryegrass?
What temp. best suits Brome grass?
Drought tolerant grass common in lawns and patures
Fescue can often be contaminated with ____ causing _____.
Neotyphodium coenophialum, causing ergot type alkaloids
What is summer syndrome?
inc. body temp, rapid breathing, and dec. production of cattle caused by feeding fescue
What does feeding poor quality fescue cause in horses?
prolonged gestation, weak foals, abortion, agalactia
What are the benefits of timothy?
cold adapted, CP can be high
Type of plant with nodules in the root system
_____ in the nodules of legumes are able to transform atmospheric N into a form usable by plant
T/F Legumes have high CP?
Examples of legumes?
Alfalfa, clover, soybean, green bean, peas
what are the two major alfalfa associated problems
1. Bloat in cattle
2. Blister beetle toxicity in horses
What is Blister Beetle toxicity?
Epicauta spp beetle is eaten by horse when grazing alfalfa causing GI upset!
C/S of Blister beetle toxicity?
Oral ulcers and colic
Legume that may cause coagulation issues in livestock mostly cattle
What is the caution with red clover?
may be contaminated with rhizoctonia leguminocola leading to Salframine accumulation
C/S of Slaframine toxicosis
salivary syndrome in horses
bloat, diarrhea, frequent urination
Alsike clover may ause problems related to _____ in horses
Any low growing boradleaf plant that commonly grows with grass plants
Another name for woody plants
T/F. The stems of plants have more fiber
T/F Plants that are flowering are more nutritious?
Select the tropical grass species:
b. Rye grass
What is Green Chop?
forage harvested daily and fed to dairy in bunks
Forage baled at low water content
Semi-wilted fermented grasses/legumes in bags
Preserved short fibers that have a moisture higher than haylage and hay
What is silage?
any crop that is preserved anaerobicallly
What are the 3 types of silage?
1. Ensiled forages
What are two examples of Carbonaceous silages?
1. Corn silage
2. Grass silage
What are two examples of Proteinaceous Silages
1. Alfalfa silage
2. Clover silage
Grains produced by plants of the grass family, provide immense tonnages of harvested grains
Examples of Cereal grains
Benefits of feeding corn
T/F corn is high in protein
Why is wheat not commonly used in animal feeds
May become pasty in GIT
What is Bran?
Grain by product removed when white flour is made
By- product of the sugar industry used to inc. palatability of the feed
Dietary source of essential fatty acids
Fats and oils (F&O)
____ is the most important protein supplement
Residue left after the cotton, lint, and hull have been removed
Cottonseed meal congaing ____, which can be toxic to the heart, lungs, and repro organs
T/F Sunflowers and Peanuts are high in lysine
3 cereals used to make beer
3. malted barley
What is NPN?
Non protein nitrogen. Feed grade urea
What is the most common mineral supplement added to diets
Why is calcium and phosphorus added to animals diets?
skeletal growth, lactation, egg production
T/F Cereals are high in Ca and P?
F. very low
What are the 5 sources of Calcium phosphorus?
1. Dicalcium phosphate
2. Rock phosphates
3. Ca Carbonate
5. Oyster shells
Where is Vit A found?
Where is Vit D found?
Fish liver oil
Where is Vit. E found
Germ or germ oil of plants,
greeen plants or hays
Where is Vit K found?
Green plant material
Where is Vit B complex found?
Animal and fish by-products, dairy products
Ingredients or combination of ingredients added to the basic feed mix to fulfill a specific need